How Common Is Chlamydia
CDC estimates that there were four million chlamydial infections in 2018.3 Chlamydia is also the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States.4 However, a large number of cases are not reported because most people with chlamydia are asymptomatic and do not seek testing. Chlamydia is most common among young people. Two-thirds of new chlamydial infections occur among youth aged 15-24 years.3 It is estimated that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 years has chlamydia.5
Disparities persist among racial and ethnic minority groups. In 2019, reported chlamydia rates for African Americans/Blacks were nearly six times that of Whites.4 Chlamydia is also common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men . Among MSM screened for rectal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 3.0% to 10.5%.6,7 Among MSM screened for pharyngeal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 0.5% to 2.3%.7.8
How Chlamydia Is Transmitted
Sexual fluids like semen and vaginal fluids carry the chlamydia bacteria. Anyone can get chlamydia through sex without a condom, which includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
Mothers who have chlamydia can pass it on to infants during childbirth.
Chlamydia does NOT spread through everyday contact like touching, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or sitting on toilet seats. The bacteria cannot live outside the body, and needs wet contact.
How Soon After Unprotected Sex Can I Test For Stds
In general, you should seek STD testing within a few weeks of having unprotected sex. Because some STDs have longer incubation periods than others, it may take a few days, weeks, or months before an STD screening provides reliable results.
Incubation periods differ depending on the STD, meaning you may have to get tested more than once to confirm the results. Some common STDs and their incubation periods:
- Gonorrhea â 2 to 6 days
- Chlamydia â 1 to 5 days
- Syphilis â 3 to 6 weeks
- Herpes â 4 to 6 weeks
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What Increases Your Risk
Risk factors for getting chlamydia include:
- Having unprotected sex .
- Having more than one sex partner.
- Having a high-risk partner or partners. This includes people who have more than one sex partner or sex partners who have chlamydia.
- Starting sexual activity before age 18.
Any child with chlamydia needs to be seen by a doctor to determine the cause and to assess for possible sexual abuse. For more information, see the topic Child Abuse and Neglect.
How Does A Chlamydia Test Work
The most commonly used type of chlamydia test is called a Nucleic Acid Amplification Test . A NAAT detects the DNA of the bacteria that cause the chlamydia infection. You provide a sample of urine. Or your provider collects a sample of secretions from the vagina or urethra . The lab tests the sample for signs of the bacteria.
Less often, providers use a cell culture to test for chlamydia. Your provider swabs your vagina, urethra or anus to collect a sample of fluid and cells. They send the cells to a lab to test. If bacteria are present, they will grow, which indicates an infection. Providers may choose this type of chlamydia test to detect infections in the anus. Or they may use a cell culture to see how chlamydia treatments are working.
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How Can I Prevent Stis In The Future
The best way to prevent an STI is to not have sex oral, vaginal, or anal. But if youre sexually active, practicing safer sex can definitely lower your risk of getting an STI. Some tips include:
Get vaccinated: Vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent hepatitis B and the type of HPV that causes cancer.
Use a latex or polyurethane condom: Using a condom every time you have anal, vaginal, or oral sex lowers your risk of getting many STIs. Condoms arent always as great at protecting you against STIs that can be spread from skin-to-skin contact, like herpes or HPV but they can still help. Internal condoms may also effectively prevent the risk of STIs, but more studies are needed to see how well they work.
Have fewer partners: Decreasing the number of sexual partners you have can lower your risk of getting an STI.
Mutual monogamy: This means you only have one sexual partner, who also agrees to only be sexually active with you.
Talk with your partner: Have an honest conversation with your partner about your sexual histories. Get tested before having sex.
Be safe: Avoiding excessive substance use with alcohol and drugs before and during sex will mean youre less likely to take risks.
Get screened: If youre sexually active, getting regular screening is one of the easiest ways to stay healthy.
Advantages Disadvantages And Availability Of Select C Pneumoniae Diagnostic Methods
1 Acceptable specimen types vary by system.
2 Culture can be performed at CDC but is not used for routine diagnostic purposes.
3 State and local departments of public health may also offer these diagnostic tests for the detection of C. pneumoniae.
4 CF is not recommended for diagnosis of acute C. pneumoniae infection because of cross-reactivity with other Chlamydia species and other enteric bacteria. Also, the sensitivity for detecting reinfection is low. Whole-inclusion fluorescence tests are also not species-specific and have not been widely evaluated. EIA is not a recommended diagnostic method because of low sensitivity and specificity.
5 MIF is the only species-specific antibody test available that can measure isotype-specific antibody titers to all Chlamydia species simultaneously. However, MIF testing is technically complex and interpretation is subjective.
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Who Should Get Tested For Chlamydia
We recommend getting tested for chlamydia if you:
- Have had sex with an infected partner
- Have had unprotected oral, vaginal, or anal sex
- Have new or multiple sex partners
- Want to check your status
- Are entering a new relationship
How Often Should You Get Tested?
If you believe you may have been exposed to chlamydia, you should get tested. Because certain people are at higher risk of getting chlamydia, the CDC recommends at least yearly testing for the following groups:
- Sexually active women under 25
- Women with risk factors like new or multiple sex partners
- Men who have sex with men
Pregnant women should test for chlamydia during their first prenatal visit and again during the third trimester if they are under 25 or have risk factors.1
Getting tested regularly for chlamydia and other common sexually transmitted diseases is important. Untreated chlamydia infection can cause serious health complications like:
- Increased risk of contracting other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, if exposed
What Should You Do If You Test Positive?
We understand how stressful testing positive can be. The good news is that chlamydia is curable and, if caught early, it wont cause lasting health problems. You should also discuss your status with your sexual partner so they can get tested and treated.
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If Youre In A Dry Spell
If youve had no sexual encounters for a while, you most likely wont need an STD test.
This is especially true if you had an STD test done after your most recent sexual experience.
However, you may not necessarily be in the clear. HIV can take some time to be detectable, so if you got STD testing done promptly after your last sexual encounter, it may have been too soon to detect any HIV in your system.
In this case, youll want to speak with your doctor. Give them all the details of your sexual history and they can determine if you need to be tested for HIV or not.
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Who Should Be Tested
As long as youre sexually active, you should be tested for STDs at least once a year. If you have more than one partner, share intravenous needles, or dont always practice safer sex by using a condom each time you have intercourse, you should be tested every three to six months.
When caught early enough, most STDs are treatable and even curable. Those that arent curable can be managed once you know you have them.
When To See A Doctor
If you are sexually active and displaying symptoms of chlamydia, or you believe you were exposed to the bacterial infection through a sexual partner, see a doctor for evaluation and treatment as soon as possible.
The CDC advises sexually active women under 25 years old get screened for chlamydia every year. Its also a good idea to be tested when beginning a sexual relationship with a new partner.
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Getting Tested For Stis
Because STIs are so common, its a safe bet to get tested once a year, even if youre practicing safe sex and using protection. Your doctor may not automatically test you at every appointment so make sure to ask about it if they dont offer it.
Here are some testing recommendations for prominent STIs:
What Will Happen If Chlamydia Infections Is Ignored So Long
Trachoma of the eye. Progression of trachoma. Trachoma, an infection of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma is a bacterial infection that affects your eyes
If you are thinking hard to know about how is chlamydia transmitted then the only answer is via sexual contact. Unfortunately, the side effects of Chlamydia over male infertility are generally underestimated. But it is observed that this infection can damage sperm and may also lead to some serious or non curable reproductive disorder like permanent infertility.
Males that are suffering with Chlamydia use to have DNA level 3 times higher than its normal amount in DNA. It clearly means that the genetic material is not perfectly packed inside and it is more susceptible to breakage.
Structure of Mycoplasma cell. the bacterium is the causative agent of sexually transmitted diseases, pneumoniae, atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders. unaffected by many antibiotics.
Mycoplasma is also similar kind of disease and it is also transferred with sexual contact both these diseases can have direct effect on sperm production in male body. Once a person gets infected with Chlamydia then his rate of abnormal sperm reproduction gets increased up to 80% and it has about 10% lesser mobility inside body when compared with normal peers.
Other than this, male Chlamydia patients are observed to experience urethritis, conjunctivitis and rheumatological conditions along with reactive arthritis issues.
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Management Of Sex Partners
Sex partners should be referred for evaluation, testing, and presumptive treatment if they had sexual contact with the partner during the 60 days preceding the patients onset of symptoms or chlamydia diagnosis. Although the exposure intervals defining identification of sex partners at risk are based on limited data, the most recent sex partner should be evaluated and treated, even if the time of the last sexual contact was > 60 days before symptom onset or diagnosis.
How Soon After Sex Can I Get Tested
This will depend on the STI and the time in between the sexual contact. The amount of time that needs to pass after sexual contact and before you can get tested for STIs is often referred to as a window period. The duration of this window period depends on the STI.
- HIV can take up to three months for a final positive result, although 95% of tests will be accurate after six weeks. It can take up to three months for enough copies of the virus to accumulate in your blood and be detected through a blood test.
- Chlamydia can be tested for after a few days but results will be most accurate after 2 weeks.
- Gonorrhea results are most accurate after seven days. While you can get tested earlier, there is a chance of a false negative if not enough bacteria or virus has accumulated from the infection to be detected on a test.
- Hepatitis has a window period of two and four weeks.
- Syphilis has window period between three and four weeks.
- Herpes results are most accurate after three months or within two to 12 days if a lesion is present.
For more information on window periods, see SmartSexResources chart.
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How Is Chlamydia Spread
You can get chlamydia by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia.
If your sex partner is male you can still get chlamydia even if he does not ejaculate .
If youve had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can still get infected again. This can happen if you have unprotected sex with someone who has chlamydia.
Questions For Your Doctor After At
After at-home chlamydia testing, you may find it helpful to ask your doctor questions about your test result and need for future STD testing. Questions for a doctor may include:
- What is the significance of my test result?
- Are additional tests recommended to confirm my test result?
- When should I be tested again for chlamydia?
- What other STD tests are recommended for me?
- If I tested positive, should I share this information with sexual partners?
Several sexually transmitted infections can be detected using urine testing, which is becoming more and more available. Urine chlamydia tests and gonorrhea tests are a lot more pleasant than having to have your cervix or urethra swabbed and are quickly becoming standard practice.
It may be more difficult to find urine testing for other STIs, such as trichomoniasis or human papillomavirus , however. This article will discuss urine testing for STIs.
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Why Is It Important To Undergo A Chlamydia Test
A chlamydia test is the best way to detect if you have a chlamydia infection or not. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly three million Americans are infected with chlamydia every year.
It is a must to undergo a chlamydia test because the disease can go on without symptoms and someone who has it may unknowingly transfer the infection to other people.
A regular screening is a must for people who are:
Picture 3: A urine test is one of the procedures used to detect the presence of infection such as chlamydia.
Image Source: ebayimg.com
How Does Chlamydia Affect A Pregnant Woman And Her Baby
In pregnant women, untreated chlamydia has been associated with pre-term delivery,34 as well as ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia in the newborn. In published prospective studies, chlamydial conjunctivitis has been identified in 18-44% and chlamydial pneumonia in 3-16% of infants born to women with untreated chlamydial cervical infection at the time of delivery.9-12 Neonatal prophylaxis against gonococcal conjunctivitis routinely performed at birth does not effectively prevent chlamydial conjunctivitis.37-39
Screening and treatment of chlamydia in pregnant women is the best method for preventing neonatal chlamydial disease. All pregnant women should be screened for chlamydia at their first prenatal visit. Pregnant women under 25 and those at increased risk for chlamydia should be screened again in their third trimester. Pregnant women with chlamydial infection should be retested 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of recommended therapy.40
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When Should I Get Chlamydia Testing
As most people infected with chlamydia do not experience symptoms, doctors rely on screening to detect most cases of chlamydia. Screening guidelines vary based on many factors, including a persons anatomy, health, and sexual practices. Regular screening for chlamydia is recommended for several groups:
Certain factors increase the risk of contracting chlamydia and may affect how often a person should be screened. Risk factors include having:
- Sex with a new partner
- More than one sexual partner or a partner who has sex with mutiple people
- A sex partner diagnosed with an STD
Testing for chlamydia is more frequently conducted in asymptomatic people in settings where infection rates are high, which often includes correctional facilities, adolescent health clinics, the military, and sexual health clinics.
Diagnostic chlamydia testing is recommended for anyone with signs or symptoms of this infection. When symptoms do occur, they may not appear until a few weeks after exposure. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia can vary based on the site of infection but may include:
- Burning during urination
Std Testing Doesnt Replace Discussion
People often wonder whether they have to tell current/future partners that they might have been exposed to an STD. Whether the question is modified by What if we only had oral sex? or What if it didnt last long? the answer is usually the same. These are discussions that everybody should be having before they have sex.
Most people dont come to sexual relationships completely inexperienced. Therefore, talks about testing and safe sex arent just appropriate but smart.
Still, sometimes the discussion can be difficult. Thats why its always a good idea to practice safe sex, particularly until youre reasonably certain of your test results.
Condoms may not be perfect, but latex types still offer protection against STDs.
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