How Do You Get Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition of the vagina caused by an overgrowth of various germs. It is not one infection, caused by one type of germ.
The vagina normally has a mix of germs , including anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli, but in bacterial vaginosis the balance changes. As a result, the anaerobic bacteria multiply and thrive much more than usual. In other words, they are bacteria which are normally present, just not in the same balance.
BV is not caused by poor hygiene. In fact, excessive washing of the vagina may alter the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina even more, which may make BV more likely to develop or worsen.
We dont really know what triggers the bacterial balance to swing away from normal. We know that its more likely to happen if something disturbs the acidity of the vagina, , which then allows the anaerobic bacteria to overgrow.
How Can I Lower My Risk Of Bv
Researchers do not know exactly how BV spreads. Steps that might lower your risk of BV include:
- Keeping your vaginal bacteria balanced. Use warm water only to clean the outside of your vagina. You do not need to use soap. Even mild soap can cause irritate your vagina. Always wipe front to back from your vagina to your anus. Keep the area cool by wearing cotton or cotton-lined underpants.
- Not douching. Douching upsets the balance of good and harmful bacteria in your vagina. This may raise your risk of BV. It may also make it easier to get BV again after treatment. Doctors do not recommend douching.
- Not having sex. Researchers are still studying how women get BV. You can get BV without having sex, but BV is more common in women who have sex.
- Limiting your number of sex partners. Researchers think that your risk of getting BV goes up with the number of partners you have.
Clinical Manifestations And Complications Of Chlamydial Infection In Male Genitourinary Tract
C. trachomatis is a bacterium whose sexually transmitted strains D-K cause genital tract infections in women and men . However, chlamydia is known as a silent pathogen because about three-quarters of infected women and about half of infected men have no symptoms . Symptoms of chlamydia, if present, include discharge of mucopurulent or purulent material, dysuria, urethral pruritus, urinary frequency or urgency, and lower abdominal or pelvic pain and show up about 1 to 3 weeks after being infected. One of the most common symptoms for in cases of chlamydia in men is a painful urination. In the worst cases chlamydia infection can, without treatment, lead on to other problems such as epididymitis or orchitis if the infection has made it to the testicles. This is particularly worrisome because it can occasionally cause a man to become sterile.
Other C. trachomatis strains, L1, L2 and L3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum. This tropical sexually transmitted infection is currently responsible for outbreaks of ulcerative proctitis mainly affecting homosexual men in various European countries and the US .
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Bacterial Vaginosis In Pregnancy
If you develop bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy, there’s a small chance of complications, such as premature birth or miscarriage.
But BV causes no problems in the majority of pregnancies.
Speak to a GP or your midwife if you’re pregnant and your vaginal discharge changes.
Page last reviewed: 22 November 2018 Next review due: 22 November 2021
Its Possible To Get Chlamydia Through Oral Or Anal Sex
You may have heard that its not possible to get chlamydia through oral or anal sex, but this is just a myth. If you have unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex, you could get chlamydia.
While its possible to get chlamydia through any of these sex acts, the risk varies depending on the type of sex youre having. Chlamydia isnt commonly passed through cunnilingus, but its possible. The infection is commonly passed through fellatio and anal sex.
No matter what type of sex youre having, its a good idea to use protection. This may include dental dams or condoms, depending on the sex act. Other types of contraception, like birth control pills and IUDs, dont provide any protection against chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections.
Is Bv Similar To Chlamydia
BV, unlike chlamydia, is not considered a sexually transmitted disease. It affects only females and can be induced by sex but not transmitted by a sex partner. Sexual activity can change the pH of the vagina and induce BV symptoms. Other common things that can lead to BV are low immunity and pregnancy.
How Is Chlamydia Treated
Chlamydia can be cleared up with antibiotics in about a week or two. But dont stop taking your medication just because your symptoms improve. Ask your provider about what follow-up is needed to be sure your infection is gone after youve finished taking your medicine.
Part of your treatment should also include avoiding sexual activities that could cause you to get re-infected and ensuring that any sexual partners who may be infected also get treatment. You should:
- Abstain from sex until your infection has cleared up. Starting treatment doesnt mean that youre in the clear. Take all your medication as your provider directs, and avoid all sexual contact in the meantime.
- Contact all sexual partners. Tell any sexual partners from the last 3 months that youre infected so that they can get tested, too.
- Get tested for other STIs . Its common to have multiple STIs, and its important to receive treatment thats tailored to each infection.
Antibiotics can get rid of your infection, but they cant reverse any harm the bacteria may have caused to your body before treatment. This is why its so important to get screened regularly for chlamydia, to see your provider at the first sign of symptoms, and get treatment immediately if youre infected.
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Check If You Have Bacterial Vaginosis
The most common symptom of bacterial vaginosis is unusual vaginal discharge that has a strong fishy smell, particularly after sex.
You may notice a change to the colour and consistency of your discharge, such as becoming greyish-white and thin and watery.
But 50% of women with bacterial vaginosis do not have any symptoms.
Bacterial vaginosis does not usually cause any soreness or itching.
If you’re unsure it’s BV, check for other causes of unusual vaginal discharge.
Can Chlamydia Be Cured
Yes, chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. It is important that you take all of the medication your doctor prescribes to cure your infection. When taken properly it will stop the infection and could decrease your chances of having complications later on. You should not share medication for chlamydia with anyone.
Repeat infection with chlamydia is common. You should be tested again about three months after you are treated, even if your sex partner was treated.
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What Is The White Liquid That Comes Out Of A Woman
white fluid that comes outwomenPreventing Bacterial Vaginosis
Tips for preventing future odor
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What Can Happen If You Have Bv For A Long Time
Most often, BV does not cause other health problems.However, if left untreated, BV may increase yourrisk for:
- Sexually transmitted diseases like herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV
- Pelvic inflammatory disease where BV bacteria infect the uterus or fallopian tubes. Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause infertility and increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
- An infection after a procedure on the female organs. This includes cesarean section, abortion, and surgery on the cervix or uterus.
- Early labor or birth, if pregnant
If you have BV:
- Always finish antibiotic treatment, even if the signs of BV go away
- Talk to female sex partners about getting BV treatment
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How Do You Get Bv
Researchers are still studying how women get BV. You can get BV without having sex, but BV is more common in women who are sexually active. Having a new sex partner or multiple sex partners, as well as douching, can upset the balance of good and harmful bacteria in your vagina. This raises your risk of getting BV.1
Toxicity And Side Effect Management
In neonates being treated for chlamydial infection, both azithromycin and erythromycin are associated with a risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. This is particularly a concern for infants two weeks old or younger. Parents and physicians should observe infants closely for any signs of intestinal obstruction.
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Are You More Likely To Get An Std If You Are Uncircumcised
Background Several studies have found that uncircumcised males had a higher chance of obtaining several sexually transmitted diseases , such as chancroid, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis, and a decreased risk of developing genital herpes and genital warts, when compared to circumcised men. These findings were based on surveys that either asked about current circumcision status or measured the circumference of the penis therefore, no conclusions could be made about past circumcision status.
Objective To determine whether there is evidence that uncircumcised men are at increased risk for getting certain other STDs.
Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register , CENTRAL , MEDLINE , EMBASE , CINAHL , LILACS , Web of Science , conference proceedings, and expert informantsâ suggestions. We also checked reference lists of identified articles and reviews. The search was not restricted by language, study design, or date of publication.
Results Of the 11 854 citations identified through our searches, we included seven cohort studies involving almost 70 000 participants, two case-control studies with 793 cases and 1 926 controls, and one cross-sectional study with 584 participants.
About Article Author
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How Long Does It Take For Chlamydia To Show Up On A Test
The length of time it takes for chlamydia to show up on a test will depend on the type of test you take, i.e the type of sample required for the test:
- Urine tests take about 2 to 5 days to show a positive or negative result.
- Blood tests can come back with results in a few minutes if the blood is analyzed on site. But they can take a week or more if sent to an off-site lab.
- Swab results take about 2 to 3 days to show a positive or negative.
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Can Bv Become Chlamydia
For every one additional episode of BV, the risk of acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea infections increased by 13% and 26%, respectively. A monotonic dose-response relationship was also noted between antecedent BV and subsequent chlamydia and gonorrhea infection.
Is There A Test For Bacterial Vaginosis
If you are in a stable, long-term relationship, your doctor or nurse may be happy to diagnose BV just by its typical symptoms.
The typical discharge and its characteristic fishy smell make BV likely. When your doctor examines you they may be able to identify BV from the appearance of the discharge.
There are some tests that can help to confirm the diagnosis. Also, if you are pregnant, it is important to make an accurate diagnosis of any unusual vaginal discharge so that any infection can be treated effectively. The tests include:
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What Causes Pid
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease also called PID is an infection in your uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. PID happens when bacteria moves from your vagina and cervix to other parts of your body. It can lead to chronic pain and other serious health problems, like infertility.
PID is usually caused by 2 sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia or gonorrhea. These STDs can be cured easily with antibiotics, but many people dont know they have them because they usually dont have symptoms thats why getting tested for STDs is so important.
If theyre not treated, chlamydia and gonorrhea can lead to PID. PID can also be caused by other untreated infections, like bacterial vaginosis.
PID is common more than a million people get it every year.
What Is An Std
STD stands for sexually transmitted disease, also called sexually transmitted infections . STDs are infections that spread from person to person through sexual activity, including anal, vaginal, or oral sex. STDs are caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses.
Many health care providers use the term infection instead of disease, because a person with an infection may have no symptoms but still require treatment. When untreated, an STI can become a disease.
HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but it can progress to a disease called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome when HIV infection is untreated with HIV medicines. Other examples of STDs are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and syphilis.
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What Are The Complications Of Pid
If PID isnt treated, it can lead to serious health problems that are sometimes life-threatening. The infection may spread to other parts of your body. PID can increase your risk for ectopic pregnancy, which can be life-threatening. People with PID can experience chronic pain in their lower belly, and infertility.
The longer you have PID, the more likely it is that youll have dangerous long-term health problems and infertility. Thats why its really important to have any symptoms checked out by a doctor, and get tested regularly for STDs the sooner, the better.
PID can be treated. But treatment might not be able to undo damage caused by long-term PID infections.
What Are The Symptoms Of Trichomoniasis
The following are the most common symptoms of trichomoniasis:
A frothy, often musty-smelling, greenish-yellow discharge
Itching or burning in and around the vagina and vulva
Swelling or redness at the opening of the vagina
Light bleeding, especially after sex
Burning during urination
Discomfort in the lower abdomen
Pain during sex
Some women with trichomoniasis have no symptoms. The symptoms of trichomoniasis may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.
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More About Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
For women, one of the most serious complications from untreated chlamydia is pelvic inflammatory disease . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1020% of women with untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea infections may develop PID. And 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. PID can also cause ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain.
Like chlamydia, it is possible for a woman to have PID and not have any symptoms, or have symptoms too mild to notice, for an unknown period of time. If symptoms do occur, they could include:
- Dull pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen
- Burning or pain when you urinate
- Nausea and vomiting
- Increased or changed vaginal discharge
- Pain during sex
It is highly unlikely for chlamydia to go away on its own. Although the symptoms may subside temporarily, the infection may persist in the body in the absence of treatment . It is important to seek diagnosis and timely treatment to get rid of the infection.
If treatment is not sought, chlamydia can lead to the following serious complications:
How Does Someone Get Chlamydia
Chlamydia is passed through oral, anal, or vaginal sex. Chlamydia can be passed from one person to another even if the penis or tongue does not go all the way into the vagina or anus.Eye infections can occur when discharge caries the disease into the eye during sex or hand-to-eye contact.
Chlamydia can also be passed from mother to newborn as the baby passes through the infected birth canal. This can result in eye infections, pneumonia or other complications.
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How Common Is Chlamydia
CDC estimates that there were four million chlamydial infections in 2018.3 Chlamydia is also the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States.4 However, a large number of cases are not reported because most people with chlamydia are asymptomatic and do not seek testing. Chlamydia is most common among young people. Two-thirds of new chlamydial infections occur among youth aged 15-24 years.3 It is estimated that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 years has chlamydia.5
Disparities persist among racial and ethnic minority groups. In 2019, reported chlamydia rates for African Americans/Blacks were nearly six times that of Whites.4 Chlamydia is also common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men . Among MSM screened for rectal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 3.0% to 10.5%.6,7 Among MSM screened for pharyngeal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 0.5% to 2.3%.7.8
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How Is Bv Typically Treated
Antibiotics are the recommended treatment for BV. These can come in the form of pills, gels, or creams.
The infection will often clear up within a couple of days, but youll usually be told to take the treatment for a week.
If you develop BV more than twice in 6 months, you may be given a more long-term antibiotic treatment.
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