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Chlamydia And Type 2 Diabetes

The Interaction Of Helicobacter Pylori Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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From the Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranDepartment of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAddress for correspondence: Mr. Seyed Abolfazl Hosseininasab Nodoushan, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail:

Having High Sugar Levels For A Long Period Of Time Can Cause Problems In How You Have Sex Called Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual problems will happen to almost everyone at some point, whether you have diabetes or not. And if you have diabetes, it doesnt mean youll definitely have a problem. But people with diabetes are more at risk of sexual dysfunction.

This is one of the complications of diabetes, and is down to high blood sugar levels, and also high blood pressure and blood fats .

Having high sugar levels for a period of time can damage your blood vessels and nerves, including the ones that supply your sexual organs. This can restrict the amount of blood flowing to your sexual organs, so you can lose some sensation. This could mean you have difficulty getting aroused, both physically and in how you feel.

But sex can be an important part of our lives, and its something we still struggle to talk about. You should get the time and support to talk about sexual problems with a healthcare professional as one of your 15 essential healthcare checks. So make sure you get the care and support you need.

Here well take you through the sexual problems that can affect women. This information can help you manage any problems you may have now, or reduce your risk of developing them in the future. And if you’re looking for information about sexual problems in men, we’ve got that too.

Diabetes Care Varies Far Too Much

People on anti-anxiety and anti-seizure medicine also had a lower risk.

Dr Cohen added: The overall message is that ordinary record keeping that doctors do is a very, very rich source of information.

If you use a computerized approach to studying patterns in that data, you can greatly improve diagnosis and medical care.

The study is published in the Journal of Biomedical Informatics.

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Community Sampling And Baseline Examinations

In phase I of the study, a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used to select 3000 people aged > = 25 years from major ports of Bushehr Province . The studied ports of the Northern Persian Gulf were Bushehr Port , Genaveh and Deilam Ports. Specifications dictated that approximately two persons per selected household could be included in phase I cross-sectional survey.

Examinations were conducted in 200304. All subjects were asked to fast and to present to the survey center between 7.309.30 a.m. Blood pressure was assessed twice at the right arm after a 15-min rest in the sitting position, using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Waist circumference was defined at the midway level between the costal margins and the iliac crests. Hip circumference was measured at the level of the greater trochanters.

A fasting blood sample was taken, all samples were promptly centrifuged, separated and analyses were carried out at the Persian Gulf Health Research Center on the day of blood collection using a Selectra 2 autoanalyzer . Glucose was assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method using a commercial kit . Serum total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were measured using a cholesterol oxidase phenol aminoantipyrine and triglycerides using a glycerol-3 phosphate oxidase phenol aminoantipyrine enzymatic method. Serum LDL-cholesterol was calculated using the Friedwald formula LDL-cholesterol was not calculated when triglycerides concentration was > 400 mg/dl.

Do I Need Medicine For Type 2 Diabetes

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Normally you wont need medication if youre prediabetic or have diabetic risk factors. You would usually only need medication if youve got type 2 diabetes, and even then youd normally start with lifestyle treatment first. Many people with type 2 diabetes dont need medication, and they control their diabetes by eating well and exercising more.

If you do need medication, your GP can help you decide the best treatment for you to start. If they decide to start you on Metformin, you can reorder your type 2 diabetes treatment online from ZAVA. As long as youve been using Metformin for at least 3 months, youre happy with your treatment, and its still suitable for you, you can order it again and have it delivered to your door without a face-to-face doctor appointment.

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What Is An Sti

As noted, the terms STD and STI are often used interchangeably these days to refer to one of several transmissions often spread through a variety of sexual contact. This can include vaginal, anal, and oral sex, as well as skin-to-skin contact.

Such contact, however, is not the only way to contract these illnesses. Shared use of needles or medical equipment is also a culprit of the rise in STI cases in the United States. Such shared use is not always for the purpose of recreational drug use there have been several instances when patients with diabetes were warned to be screened after hospitals incorrectly reused insulin pens.

Here are some of the more common forms of STIs:

Impact Of Socioeconomic Status

An inverse association of T2D and socioeconomic position has been reported worldwide, also after separate analysis of high-, middle- and low-income countries, independent of whether measured by educational level, occupation or income . Low levels of socioeconomic determinants were associated with a 4060% higher relative risk compared to the subgroup with high levels. In the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the lowest life course socioeconomic status group experienced a more than doubled risk of diabetes . An analysis in Europe found most of the difference to be mediated by BMI . A study of health behaviours in Australia found smoking and lack of physical activity as a major mediator of the increased diabetes incidence in persons with low socioeconomic status . A tentative conclusion is that an increased income may lower the risk of T2D if accompanied by an appropriate change in diet and lifestyle.

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Watching Tv Or Sedentary Time

There is a strong association between sedentary time with obesity or incident diabetes, independent of the extent of physical activity . Increased duration of sedentary behaviour may double diabetes risk . In one study, each hour of television watching increased the risk of developing diabetes over 3.2 years by 3.4% . Not surprisingly, the interaction appears to be bidirectional a sedentary lifestyle promotes obesity and vice versa .

Recommendations of limiting sedentary time in favour of being in upright posture and moving are based on short-term trials that report beneficial metabolic effects from moving compared to sitting, including less body fat gain. While sitting at a desk, energy expenditure is just 5% above the basal level, whereas the value at least doubles within minutes of standing and walking .

Proinflammatory Cytokines And Insulin Resistance

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TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance has received much recent attention . Even though predominantly an inflammatory cytokine, it has been implicated in conferring insulin resistance in peripheral tissues in a number of different disease states associated with elevated systemic TNF-alpha levels, such as obesity, cancer, and infection . Chronic exposure of adipocytes to low concentrations of TNF-alpha strongly inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Concurrently, TNF-alpha treatment causes a moderate decrease in the insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and a dramatic decrease in the phosporylation of IR substrate 1, the major substate of the IR in vivo . Thus, TNF-alpha directly interferes with the signaling of insulin through its receptor and consequently blocks biological actions of insulin.

A tight correlation between IL-6 and CRP exists such a correlation dose not exists for other cytokines. Two important acute phase proteins, CRP and fibrinogen, have IL-6 response elements in the promoter regions of their genes. IL-6 is believed to be the main driver of CRP release from hepatocytes . IL-6 plasma levels are significantly increased in murine and human insulin resistance, and obesity . Pickup et al showed increased levels of IL-6 in persons with more than two features of the metabolic syndrome .

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Housing Environment And Sleep Duration Or Quality

Epidemiological studies concur in an association between increased exposure to residential traffic, noise, and fine airborne particulate matter and a higher risk of T2D diagnosis during the following 512 years. The risk was higher by roughly 2040% for persons exposed to an, at least, 10 dB higher noise level or to 10 g/m3 more of fine particulate matter over 10 years, or living on a busy road. It cannot be excluded that this association is not causal, but extensive adjustments have been made for age, sex and lifestyle , as well as for socioeconomic status, without loss of the observed associations .

Contributing factors are the duration and quality of sleep . Night-time exposure to noise or light may cause sleep disturbances . Similar effects have been reported for shift-workers or for persons with decreased sleep duration due to extended working hours or leisure time activities . A recent meta-analysis of prospective studies reported the lowest risk of diabetes for 78 hours per day of sleep and an increased risk by 9% for each 1-h shorter sleep duration . Longer sleep duration or day time napping may also be a risk factor for later diabetes or metabolic syndrome, but findings are not consistent . In controlled trials performed in sleep laboratories, sleep restriction for 5 days caused a 29% decrease of whole body insulin sensitivity , and a decreased glucose disposal rate was observed already after one night of 4 hours of sleep .

Genetic Or Behavioral Risk Factors Which Plays A Bigger Role In The Development Of Diabetes

Currently, studies show that both genetic and behavioral risk factors can contribute to diabetes. But which plays a bigger role in the development of this disease?

Thereâs no hard-and-fast answer to this question since scientists have a lot more research to do in this area. However, experts believe that behavior â in the form of eating habits and exercise, for example â can affect the genetic risk factors behind diabetes: when it comes to diabetes, healthier behaviors can lessen the negative impacts of oneâs genetics.

When it comes to diabetes, healthier behaviors can lessen the negative impacts of oneâs genetics.

For that reason, even if your risk for diabetes is largely the result of your genetics, you can still help try to keep this condition at bay with healthy eating and regular exercise.

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Basis Of Selection Of Screening Test

Evidence suggests that A1c and glucose measurements perform similarly in predicting type 2 diabetes and related microvascular complications such as retinopathy. More value was placed on the convenience for patients and utility of A1c in addressing variability in glucose levels, and less value was placed on the small risk of interference of severe illness and hemoglobinopathies with A1c measurement in some assays.

/5why Type 2 Diabetes Affects Men And Women Differently

Patient Education

Living with Type 2 diabetes can be a complex battle. After being diagnosed, one needs to make several changes in the lifestyle routine to control their blood sugar level and manage their symptoms. Right from food choices to exercise routine, several alterations are required, keeping the health condition in mind.In the last two decades, Type 2 diabetes has become a prominent health concern affecting a chunk of the population above 50 years. Both men and women are equally prone to develop metabolic disorders. However, when it comes to the symptoms and complications gender plays a critical role.

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What Is Type 1 Diabetes

The other name of type 1 diabetes is juvenile diabetes because it occurs in the young age classically. The aetiology of this disease is an autoimmune mechanism. Our immune system typically protects us from foreign invaders, but sometimes it attacks the own body tissues that actually happens in this case. The immune system attacks upon the beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone which suppresses the amount of glucose in the blood. It causes the glucose to come into the cells where it is produced for energy production of the cell. When insulin production is diminished, cells cannot utilize glucose for their normal functions. Glucose remains in the blood which causes hyperglycemia. The typical presentation of a patient with type 1 diabetes is a young aged thin lean person with no family history of diabetes. Since it is an autoimmune disorder, so it cannot be prevented. The management is done after the disease has expressed itself. Type 1 diabetes is controlled by the insulin injections which are given subcutaneously. Such patients remain dependant on insulin therapy throughout life.

How Do I Avoid Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors And Prevent It

You should always aim to maintain a healthy lifestyle to manage your type 2 diabetes risk factors.

Its important to make changes which are realistic and work for you. You can start by making one change at a time and making it part of your everyday routine. Changes you can make include:

  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet that keeps salt, fat and sugar to a minimum
  • Losing weight aim to do this slowly with a loss of 0.5 to 1 kg a week
  • Exercising regularly aim for at least 2.5 hours of physical activity a week
  • Stopping smoking diabetes worsens the effects of smoking on your heart
  • Cutting down the amount of alcohol you drink
  • Improving your sleep hygiene having a regular sleep pattern and getting enough sleep can help

Theres nothing you cant eat if youre prediabetic or have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but you should aim to have a healthy balanced diet. Make sure you eat a wide range of foods, including fruits and vegetables, wholegrain carbohydrates, low fat dairy products and oily fish. Try to reduce the amount of fatty foods that youre eating. Dont skip meals, and make sure you have breakfast, lunch, and dinner at regular times. There are programmes that your GP might be able to refer you to, which involve spending some time with a dietician for advice about how you can improve your diet.

If youre not sure how often to check your risk of type 2 diabetes, ask your doctor.

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Occupational And Leisure Time Physical Activity

Epidemiological studies suggest that high versus low total physical activity is associated with a reduction in relative diabetes risk by approximately 30%. All types of leisure time physical activities as well as occupational physical activity were found to be inversely associated with diabetes risk . The beneficial effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control has also been demonstrated in controlled trials in non-diabetic individuals . Reallocation of 30 min of sedentary time into moderate to vigorous physical activity was associated with a 15% difference in HOMA-defined insulin sensitivity . The beneficial effects of muscle work do not simply reflect the burning of calories, since enhanced physical activity leads to minimal weight loss .

Hiv Positive People Are At Higher Risk For Type 2 Diabetes

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People who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, HIV and lipodystrophy could have an increased risk for suffering from type 2 diabetes.

HIV infected individuals are at risk for developing NAFLD, and prior studies have shown that NAFLD is more common in HIV people than those who donât have HIV. There is also an increased chance for lipodystrophy for people who have HIV and do a combination antiretroviral therapy .

Lipodystrophy, which is antiretroviral-drug induced, is noted by lipoatrophy, which also has insulin resistance features such as disturbed glucose metabolism, and increases liver fat. People who have lipodystrophy and HIV have an increased chance for T2DM, but there have been no longitudinal studies. The study looked at the natural progression of NAFLD and T2DM in HIV-positive individuals who did and did not have lipodystrophy over the course of 15+ years.

14 HIV positive people were involved with the study, and another 28 healthy individuals were included. Baseline measurements for clinical characteristics and protein magnetic resonance spectroscopy were taken at the start, and again, when the study was over. Researchers measured for liver stiffness to measure the liver fibrosis using both magnetic resonance elastography and transient elastography.

The authors determined, using the current determinations of liver stiffness, that advanced fibrosis is an extremely rare complication when likened type HIV positive individuals with type 2 diabetes.

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Role Of Inflammatory Cytokines

A study by Aydemir et al. showed higher homeostatic model assessment-estimated IR scores in H. pylori-positive individuals. Furthermore, a Japanese study in 2009 conducted on a large population of 1107 asymptomatic individuals showed that H. pylori was significantly and independently related to IR. However, Gillum supported that there are no consistent associations between H. pylori infection and prevalence of diabetes or syndrome-related variables of the IR in American men of 4074 years. Furthermore, Park et al. reported that metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including blood sugar, lipid profiles, IR, white blood cell count, and CRP levels, were not changed after H. pylori eradication. It is worth noting that H. pylori infection was not determined in all studies by organisms histologic detection of mucosal biopsy specimens, which is considered the diagnostic gold standard.

Syphilis Diagnosis And Tests

Your doctor will need to do a physical exam. They might give you tests including:

  • Blood tests. A quick test at your doctors office or a public health clinic can diagnose syphilis.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid tests. If your doctor thinks you might have neurosyphilis, theyll test fluid taken from around your spinal cord.
  • Darkfield microscopy. Syphilis bacteria are visible through a microscope in fluid taken from a skin sore or lymph node.

Continued

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