Gonorrhea: Treatment And Management Considerations For The Male Patient
Brian Dalke, Fourth-Year Pharmacy Student
Timothy Ivers, Fourth-Year Pharmacy Student
Karen K. OBrien, BS Pharm, PharmD, RPhAssistant Professor of Pharmacy Sciences
Shana Castillo, PharmD, MBA, RPhAssistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Eric Hoie, PharmD, RPhAssociate Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Kimberley Begley, PharmD, RPhAssociate Professor of Pharmacy PracticeCreighton University School of Pharmacy & Health ProfessionsOmaha, Nebraska
US Pharm. 2016 41:41-44.
ABSTRACT: Gonorrhea is the second most common communicable disease in the United States. From 2010 to 2014, the rate of this sexually transmitted disease increased by 10.5% in the U.S. Cefixime, which was once the first-line agent for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is rapidly waning in efficacy, as are several other cephalosporins. Similarly, fluoroquinolone-resistant strains ofN gonorrhoeaehave been reported. As a result, the use of these agents has decreased. The CDC currently recommends dual treatment with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for most gonococcal infections. Multidrug-resistant gonorrhea is becoming a serious health threat in the U.S.
Can I Test Myself For Chlamydia At Home
Home testing kits for chlamydia are widely available and can be purchased at many pharmacies or online.
These kits typically require a urine sample or tissue swab, which you can collect at home and securely ship back to the lab to receive your results.
Some companies also include a free medical consultation with a doctor if your test results are positive to review your treatment options.
Female Complications Of Untreated Chlamydia
Infertility is also possible if chlamydia is left untreated because the fallopian tubes may become scarred.
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What Is The Treatment For Chlamydia
Chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV-negative.
Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual activity for 7 days after single dose antibiotics or until completion of a 7-day course of antibiotics, to prevent spreading the infection to partners. It is important to take all of the medication prescribed to cure chlamydia. Medication for chlamydia should not be shared with anyone. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. If a persons symptoms continue for more than a few days after receiving treatment, he or she should return to a health care provider to be reevaluated.
Repeat infection with chlamydia is common. Women whose sex partners have not been appropriately treated are at high risk for re-infection. Having multiple chlamydial infections increases a womans risk of serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. Women and men with chlamydia should be retested about three months after treatment of an initial infection, regardless of whether they believe that their sex partners were successfully treated.
Infants infected with chlamydia may develop ophthalmia neonatorum and/or pneumonia. Chlamydial infection in infants can be treated with antibiotics.
Home Remedies For Chlamydia
There are several home remedies for chlamydia and a number of websites claim that these home remedies can cure chlamydia. While some of the home remedies have been shown to have antibacterial properties, antibiotics are the only proven cure for chlamydia. It isnt worth the risk of infertility or illness to not treat chlamydia.
If you experience symptoms, some of these home remedies may be effective for symptom relief, but they cannot cure the infection itself.
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New Guidelines For Chlamydia Gonorrhoea And Syphilis
Growing antibiotic resistance forces updates to recommended treatment for sexually transmitted infections
30 AUGUST 2016 | GENEVA New guidelines for the treatment of three common sexually transmitted infections have been issued by the World Health Organization in response to the growing threat of antibiotic resistance.
Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis are all caused by bacteria and they are generally curable with antibiotics. However, these STIs often go undiagnosed and they are becoming more difficult to treat, with some antibiotics now failing as a result of misuse and overuse. It is estimated that, each year, 131 million people are infected with chlamydia, 78 million with gonorrhoea, and 5.6 million with syphilis.
Resistance of these STIs to the effect of antibiotics has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options. Of the three STIs, gonorrhoea has developed the strongest resistance to antibiotics. Strains of multidrug-resistant gonorrhoea that do not respond to any available antibiotics have already been detected. Antibiotic resistance in chlamydia and syphilis, though less common, also exists, making prevention and prompt treatment critical.
The new recommendations are based on the latest available evidence on the most effective treatments for these three sexually transmitted infections.
Male Complications Of Untreated Chlamydia
These are just some of the most common complications of untreated chlamydia, which is why its important to get medical attention right away. Most people who get treatment quickly have no long-term medical problems.
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How Usual Is Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is a very typical contagious condition. CDC approximates that about 1.6 million new gonococcal infections happened in the USA in 2018, as well as more than half occur amongst youngsters aged 15-24.
Gonorrhea is the 2nd most commonly reported microbial sexually transmitted infection in the USA.2 Nonetheless, several infections are asymptomatic, so noted cases just catch a fraction of truth burden.
How Soon Do Signs Show Up
In men, symptoms usually show up two to seven days after infection yet it can take as long as thirty days for symptoms to begin. Commonly, there are no signs for individuals infected with gonorrhea 10 to 15 percent of men and also regarding 80 percent of ladies might have no signs and symptoms.
People without signs are at risk for establishing difficulties to gonorrhea. These individuals also spread this infection unconsciously.
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Diagnosis And Management Of Gonococcal Infections
MEJEBI T. MAYOR, MD, JD, Providence Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia
MICHELLE A. ROETT, MD, MPH, Georgetown University/Providence Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program, Colmar Manor, Maryland
KELECHI A. UDUHIRI, MD, MPH, MS, Franklin Square Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program, Baltimore, Maryland
Am Fam Physician. 2012 Nov 15 86:931-938.
Patient information: See related handout on gonorrhea, written by the authors of this article.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 700,000 new cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection occur annually in the United States, making it the second most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection after Chlamydia trachomatis.1 Reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea are highest among females 15 to 19 years of age.1 Incarcerated women younger than 35 years also exhibit high rates of infection.2
SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
The USPSTF recommends that all newborns receive ocular topical medication for prophylaxis against gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.
CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention USPSTF = U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to .
Get Your Accurate Confidential Std Test At Arcpoint Labs Of Fort Myers
Taking a proactive role in your sexual health shouldnt be stressful, which is why ARCpoint Labs makes it simple to receive discreet, professional STD testing in Fort Myers. Our professional technicians provide chlamydia testing, gonorrhea testing, and a wide range of other STD testing options, so you can customize your services to suit your needs. Here, youll have the advantage of quick, hassle-free lab services, making it easier than ever to take charge of your sexual health and protect yourself from untreated STDs. Whether youre concerned about potential STD symptoms or simply want to take preventive measures, ARCpoint Labs has a testing solution for you.
Learn more about our selection of STD testing and other lab services by contacting ARCpoint Labs of Fort Myers today.
Image Credit: getty, fizkes
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What Are The Complications Of Gonorrhea Does Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Have The Same Treatment
Neglected gonorrhea can cause major and also irreversible illness in both females and men.
In ladies, gonorrhea can spread right into the womb or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory condition . The signs and symptoms might be quite light or can be very severe and can consist of abdominal discomfort as well as fever. PID can cause inner abscesses as well as persistent pelvic pain. PID can additionally harm the fallopian tubes sufficient to create the inability to conceive or enhance the danger of ectopic maternity.
In men, gonorrhea may be complicated by epididymitis. In uncommon instances, this may cause inability to conceive If left neglected, gonorrhea can additionally infect the blood and create shared gonococcal infection . DGI is generally characterized by arthritis, tenosynovitis or dermatitis. This problem can be life-threatening.
D Sexually Transmitted Infections
A urinalysis can give clues to the presence of sexually transmitted infections. A positive dipstick for leukocyte esterase or increased numbers of white blood cells in the microscopic exam is suggestive of chlamydia or gonoccocal infection. However, because of its low sensitivity this test should not be considered an effective screening method for these infections. For example, in one study, the presence of leukocyte esterase was only 61% sensitive for chlamydia infections in males.3 For a complete discussion of screening refugees for STIs, see Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections.
This panel provides an assessment of sexual health by screening for three common sexually transmitted infections :
For your urine test, itÃ¢s best not to urinate for two hours before your sample collection urinating within this period could affect the accuracy of your results.
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Can You Get Chlamydia From Oral Sex
Chlamydia trachomatisthe bacteria that causes a chlamydia infectionspreads through contact with another persons mucus membranes .
Unprotected can transmit chlamydia.
Someone with chlamydia in the throat could also transmit the infection to another persons genitals by giving oral sex, but chlamydia doesnt spread through kissing.
People also dont get chlamydia from contact with toilet seats, sharing clothes or towels, or hugging.
Put Sex On Hold During And After Chlamydia Treatment
If you were given a single dose of antibiotics to treat your chlamydia, you should not have any kind of sex for a full seven days after the day you took the medicine. If youre taking antibiotics for a week, wait another seven days after the last day of your treatment. Be sure to take all of the medicine that is prescribed for you.
Not having sex for seven days after treatment is important so you dont spread the infection to your partner or partners.
Medication stops the infection and can keep you from spreading the disease, but it wont cure any permanent damage that the infection caused before you started treatment. In women, such damage can include blocking the fallopian tubes, causing infertility.
If you still have symptoms for more than a few days after you stop taking your medicine, go back to see your doctor or other healthcare provider so they can check you again.
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How Is Chlamydia Diagnosed
Self-collected vaginal swab testing is available and many women find this screening strategy highly acceptable.
- Geisler WM, Uniyal A, Lee JY, et al. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 373:2512-2521. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1502599
- Workowski, K, Bolan G. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
- WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis. Geneva: World Health Organization 2016. 4, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS. Available from:
- Chlamydia Treatment and Care. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/treatment.htm
- Chlamydia Treatment Information Sheet. Wisconsin Department of Health Services.
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When To Contact A Doctor
If you have any of the symptoms described, you should go see a doctor. In general, if you are sexually active and have any usual discharge, burning sensations, or pain while having sex you may have an STD and should get tested.
Additionally, if you are a woman, you should contact a doctor immediately if you have any of the following symptoms as they can be a sign of a serious complication of chlamydia called pelvic inflammatory disease:
- Fainting or signs of shock
- Serious lower abdominal pain
- Temperature that is higher than 101 F
Should any of these symptoms arise or if you suspect you may have an STD, it is very important to get tested.
Even if you have no symptoms as do the vast majority of those with chlamydia but are sexually active, you should be getting tested regularly, so you do not unknowingly spread the disease.
You can make an appointment with your primary care physician or order STD testing online here.
Chlamydia is easy to cure. If you test positive for chlamydia, basically you take an antibiotic, says Jill Rabin, MD, cochief in the division of ambulatory care for womens health programs and prenatal care assistance program services for Northwell Health in New Hyde Park, New York.
Your partner must take an antibiotic, too, to keep them from reinfecting you, she says.
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Treating Babies With Gonorrhoea
Babies with signs of a gonorrhoea infection at birth, or who have an increased risk of infection because their mother has gonorrhoea, will usually be given antibiotics immediately after theyre born.
This does not harm the baby, and helps prevent blindness and other complications of gonorrhoea.
Page last reviewed: 15 September 2021 Next review due: 15 September 2024
How To Take Amoxicillin For Std Treatment
Obviously, you should always follow your doctors orders before taking any medication. When prescribed with an antibiotic, a medical professional will provide you with the specific information you need. For the rest of us, here are the basics of how amoxicillin should be taken.
Amoxicillin is rarely a single dose treatment. It should be taken orally a few times a day, usually every 8 or 12 hours. The drug works most efficiently when taken at around the same time each day. If you accidentally miss a dose, make sure to take it as soon as possible. But if it is almost time to take the next dose, you may need to simply skip over the dose you missed. In this situation, its best to contact the prescribing doctor for further instruction.
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Who Is At Risk And How Can They Prevent It
To prevent contracting either of these infections, a person should use barrier methods, such as condoms, and get tested regularly.
Even when they do not cause any symptoms, these infections can cause complications.
If a person does not seek treatment for gonorrhea, for example, there may be a of contracting HIV. They may also contract disseminated gonococcal infections.
Should My Partner Seek Treatment
If you have chlamydia or gonorrhea, your sex partners have been exposed and need to receive treatment. Otherwise, they can pass the infection back to you, as well as on to other partners. Ideally, anyone exposed to an STI would see their own healthcare provider for testing, evaluation, and treatment. However, we realize thats not always an option, and thats why many states allow health care providers to prescribe medication to people whove been exposed to chlamydia or gonorrhea without seeing them. This practice is known as expedited partner therapy , and it means that your partner can be treated by your healthcare provider without an appointment.
If youve tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhea, feel free to ask your healthcare provider about expedited treatment for your partner.
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What Stds Cause Sore Throat
If you are experiencing a sore throat after unprotected oral sex typically indicates some form of STD bacteria got transmitted from your sex partner who may be exposed to a Sexually Transmitted Disease. Sex partners unintentionally transmit oral STDs as they have no symptoms in the initial stages. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Oral Herpes, HIV, HPV, and Mononucleosis are the types of STDs that have a sore throat as one of their symptoms.
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Gonorrhea: Symptoms & Treatment Options
Symptoms: Most people dont have any symptoms when they have gonorrhea. However, those who do have reported the following issues: burning sensation when peeing a white, yellow, or green discharge when peeing or spotting between periods.
Treatment: The really great news is that gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics. Its crucial to take every single prescribed dose. Otherwise, youll continue having the infection.
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Side Effects If Left Untreated
If left untreated, gonorrhea in the throat can lead to other issues. This includes:
- Disseminated gonococcal infection. This is when the infection spreads in the body and may cause pain in the joints or a rash.
- Heart infection
- transmitted to other sex partners
A person without gonorrhea can contract the infection by receiving oral sex from someone living with this STI.
This may occur in a number of scenarios: