What Is An Std
An STD is a medical condition that is spread through sexual contact. Sometimes, sexually transmitted diseases are referred to as sexually transmitted infections or STIs. There are a number of STIs that can be transmitted through oral, vaginal or anal intercourse. Common STIs include genital herpes, human papillomavirus , chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis C. You can help reduce your risk of contracting an STD by using condoms during sex.
The Accuracy Of Rapid Std Tests
Not all rapid tests are created equal. Some have higher sensitivity and specificity than others.
Sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease .
Specificity is a test’s ability to correctly identify those who do not have the disease .
When testing during acute infection, rapid STD tests offer the average sensitivity and specificity:
- Gonorrhea: 86% sensitivity and 97% specificity
- Syphilis: 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity
- Chlamydia: 86% sensitivity and 97% specificity
- Hepatitis B: 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity
- Human papillomavirus : 87% sensitivity and 94% specificity
- Herpes simplex: 93% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity
- HIV : 92% sensitivity and 99% specificity
Unfortunately, a lower sensitivity rate translates to an increased risk of a false negative result, meaning that a person is given the “all-clear” when they are actually infected. For perspective, the 92% sensitivity rate of the currently available at-home HIV test translates to one false negative out of every 15 tests.
This is why certain bacterial diseases are more accurately diagnosed with a culture rather than a rapid test.
Each Year There Are Approximately 15 Million Cases Of Chlamydia And 350000 Cases Of Gonorrhea Reported To The Centers For Disease Control And Prevention
However this may not accurately reflect the total number of infected individuals, as most people with these infections have no symptoms and go untested. These bacterial infections are spread through sexual intercourse . This test will not be able to tell you the specific site of the infection, but will detect the infection if present.
Pregnant women with an active gonorrhea or chlamydia infection at the time of vaginal delivery can spread the infection directly to their children during birth. All sexually active women under age 25 and women over age 25 with risk factors for contracting chlamydia or gonorrhea should get tested every year: risk factors include unprotected sex, new sexual partners, or multiple sexual partners. Men at risk for chlamydia or gonorrhea should get tested each year, and more often as needed: risk factors include having sex with a partner who has chlamydia or gonorrhea, men who have sex with men, unprotected sexual intercourse, and multiple sex partners.
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Who Technical Consultation
A technical consultation on POCTs was held in Annecy, France, from 6 to 8 May 2014. The outcomes of the consultation were:
All these achievements allowed RHR to initiate the development of a research protocol for an independent multi-country validation of promising tests and technologies. This validation is an essential step to advance our understanding of performance, feasibility, acceptability and utility of STI POCTs, as well as to develop an investment case for further implementation of STI POCT within national STI control and prevention programmes.
How Does This At
This gonorrhea and chlamydia at-home test is a urine test â so a vaginal swab or blood sample is not required. To take the test, simply urinate in a collection cup and place your sample in the mail. Weâll send your sample to one of the labs we use for testing .
The lab will then use molecular testing technology that can identify the DNA of gonorrhea and chlamydia in your sample. This type of testing, known as nucleic acid amplification, is usually more accurate than other methods of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing .
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Faq About Chlamydia & Gonorrhea Panel
Sexually active individuals should be tested regularly for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. These two STDs are the most common new cases of STDs reported in the United States. Fortunately, they can be easily treated with the right antibiotics. When it comes to Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, there are many benefits that come from choosing to be tested.
Gonorrhoea Rapid Test Kit
STI Rapid Self Test Kit For Gonorrhea – Fast, Accurate, Private.
Gonorrhoea, is one of the two most common sexually transmitted infections along with chlamydia within Australia. This infection is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoea and is very easily spread. The usual symptoms in men are a burning sensation with urination and penile discharge. Women may show no symptoms at all or may have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women, left untreated, Gonorrhea may spread locally leading to inflammation of the epididymis or pelvic inflammatory disease or spread through the body affecting joints and heart valves. Testing is easily carried out using a home test kit or a rapid test kit.
Test Now for Gohorrhoea using our rapid self-test kit.
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What Do The Results Mean
If your screening results were negative or normal, it means no syphilis infection was found. Since antibodies can take a couple of weeks to develop in response to a bacterial infection, you may need another screening test if you think you were exposed to the infection. Ask your health care provider about when or if you need to be re-tested.
If your screening tests show a positive result, you will have more testing to rule out or confirm a syphilis diagnosis. If these tests confirm you have syphilis, you will probably be treated with penicillin, a type of antibiotic. Most early-stage syphilis infections are completely cured after antibiotic treatment. Later-stage syphilis is also treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment for later-stage infections can stop the disease from getting worse, but it can’t undo damage already done.
If you have questions about your results, or about syphilis, talk to your health care provider.
Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.
What Are The Symptoms Of Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea often does not cause a person infected with the bacteria to experience any obvious symptoms during the early stages. There are, however, some cases where symptoms may develop individuals who have had unprotected sexual intercourse should lookout for these signs of Gonorrhea and take appropriate action to reduce their risk of complications.
In the majority of cases, the reproductive system will show signs of the initial infection. Symptoms are not the same in men and women since the reproductive systems differ.
Men who are infected with the bacteria that causes Gonorrhea may experience these symptoms:
- Swelling in one of the testicles
- The swollen testicle may be painful
- The tip of the patients penis may discharge a pus-like substance
- There may be pain symptoms during urination
If a woman is infected with Gonorrhea, the following symptoms may occur:
- Urination may be painful
- There may be an increase in vaginal discharge
- Intercourse may lead to pain
- There may be bleeding from the vagina between periods
- Bleeding may occur after the woman had sexual intercourse
- Pain symptoms in the pelvic and abdominal regions
It is important to note that the bacteria behind the Gonorrhea infection may also affect other parts of the patients body. Symptoms of the infection in other regions, apart from the reproductive tract, will be similar in men and women, and may include:
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Rapid Std Screening Packages
Our clinics offer this rapid test whereby results are available by the next following day.
Thus facilitating prompt and appropriate treatment.
All that is required is either urine, vaginal, throat or anus samples depending on where the infection is likely to be present which will be determined by your doctor after the assessment. Addon additional area for sample testing is available.
- Rapid Chlamydia & Gonorrhoea
- Rapid STD Screening + 3rd Generation HIV Test
- Rapid STD Screening + 4th Generation HIV Test
Addon additional site is available at $214 per site
Over 90% Of The Global Burden Of Stis Occurs In Low
- Access the special supplement to the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections – December 2017
A major barrier to sexually transmitted infections control and prevention is the unavailability of reliable, low-cost, point-of-care tests which allow diagnosis and treatment in a single visit. POCTs can be used by professional and lay health workers. POCTs also offer the potential for improved STI surveillance.
Since the “Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative” was housed in WHO 15 years ago, some progress has been made towards developing rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis.
For chlamydial and gonococcal infections, and trichomoniasis, there are still no tests available that answer the main requirements for POCTs, i.e.
- rapid turnaround
- ease of use
- Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments -waived
- and sturdy .
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Purpose Of Urine Testing For Stds
It used to be that STD testing, particularly for bacterial STDs, was very uncomfortable.
Men who thought they might have a bacterial STD like chlamydia or gonorrhea got tested by having a swab inserted into their urethra. Women had to undergo a pelvic exam, during which a cervical swab would be taken and tested for bacteria.
The fact that STD testing was uncomfortable and invasive made it less likely that people would undergo regular STD screening.
That probably contributed to what is sometimes known as the hidden epidemic of asymptomatic STDs. Because many STDs have no symptoms, the only way to detect them is through testing. When people aren’t tested regularly, they can spread STDs to their partners without even knowing it.
Urine testing makes it easier for people to undergo STD testing as part of their regular medical care. Note, however, that STD testing is still not a standard part of most annual exams.
What Does The Test Measure
Gonorrhea testing detects evidence of infection with the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. There are several types of gonorrhea tests:
- Gonorrhea nucleic acid amplification testing: NAAT testing detects the genetic material of the gonorrhea bacteria and is considered the optimal test for gonorrhea infection. This type of test can be performed on a urine sample or a swab taken from a site of potential infection.
- Gram stain: Gram stains look for certain types of cells that are characteristic of a gonorrhea infection under a microscope. This test is performed on urethral swabs and is used primarily in men who are experiencing urinary symptoms.
- Gonococcal culture: Gonococcal cultures attempt to grow the gonorrhea bacteria from swabs taken from sites of potential infection. Cultures are the only tests that detect the infections susceptibility to antibiotics. Doctors may order a gonococcal culture if they suspect that a patient has an antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhea.
- Rapid gonorrhea tests: While rapid testing for gonorrhea isnt common, several tests are being developed to allow health care professionals to give same-day gonorrhea testing results.
Poor Performance Of The Chlamydia Rapid Test Device For The Detection Of Asymptomatic Infections In South African Men: A Pilot Study
N. S. Abbai-Shaik
1HIV Prevention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, 123 Jan Hofmeyer Road, Westville, Durban 3630, South Africa
2Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, 491 Ridge Road, Durban 3630, South Africa
3Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 2030mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR however, an excellent specificity was observed .. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated.
2.1. Study Population
2.4. Reference Test
Overcoming Barriers To Testing
A rapid STD test allows you to get your results in minutes rather than days. If the test is positive , you have the opportunity to get immediate treatment rather than having to come back to fill a prescription.
The newer tests also aim to overcome another factor that keeps many people away: needles and blood. Depending on the disease, a rapid test may only require a swab of body fluid or a urine sample .
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Appendix: Key Questions Reviewed By The Work Group And Member Responsible For Literature Summary
- Does the sensitivity and specificity of available tests for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae vary with respect to anatomic site from which the specimen was collected and/or specimen type?
- Joan Chow, DrPH, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California
- Katherine Whitaker, PhD, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland
- What specimen types are optimal for of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae screening purposes?
- Charlotte Gaydos, DrPH, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
- Sarah Guerry, MD, Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, Los Angeles, California
- Barbara Van Der Pol, PhD, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington, Indiana
Urine Testing Vs Bacterial Culture
Urine testing is currently primarily used to detect bacterial STDs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea urine tests are widely available. Trichomoniasis urine tests are also available, but they are less common.
The gold standard for diagnosing bacterial STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, used to be bacterial culture. That involved attempting to grow bacteria out of samples that were taken directly from the cervix or urethra.
These days, bacterial DNA testing is considered a better option. It works differently than bacterial culture. Instead of trying to grow bacteria, these tests just look for bacterial DNA. This can be done using a process called ligase chain reaction or with other DNA amplification techniques.
These types of testing are sensitive to even very small amounts of bacterial DNA. Even better, they do not require a live bacterial sample. As such, they can be run on urine samplesnot just urethral or cervical swabs.
For most people, the thought of a getting gonorrhea urine test or chlamydia urine test is a lot less intimidating than the thought of needing a physical exam.
Read Also: How To Tell If A Male Has Chlamydia
How To Choose The Right Test For You
With dozens of at-home testing kits available, it can be hard to choose the right test for you. After all, what does a good at-home STD testing kit look like? What should it entail? What do you need?
There is no one-size-fits-all answer. Your needs will vary, depending on your situation and circumstances. Whats more, they may change over time.
Use this chart to help you determine which test is right for you.
You should also make sure your test is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . To determine if your product is FDA-approved, check the FDAs website.
Why Should I Test For Both
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are both caused by bacteria, display similar symptoms, and often occur together. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are also recognized as co-existing infections, which means that the occurrence of one infection may put you at risk of having the other. This is why we suggest that you be tested for both.
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Does A Positive Test For Chlamydia Mean I Have Gonorrhea
The simple answer is no. But a longer explanation would reveal that many people who have tested positive for Chlamydia often test positive for Gonorrhea as well. Therefore, it is not uncommon for a physician to recommend testing for both STDs.
Rapid STD Testing offers a convenient dual panel test for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea so you dont have to pay for two individual tests.
When To Test For Std
Many STDs can cause serious health complications, and it’s possible to have an STD without experiencing any warning signs or symptoms. As a result, testing is the only way to know for sure whether or not you have an STD that may require treatment and potentially be spread to a partner. Generally, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends annual testing for sexually active men and women, particularly for those who have multiple partners or new partners.
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What Are Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea and chlamydia are common sexually transmitted diseases . Both are typically asymptomatic , caused by bacteria, and have high prevalence across the United States. Chlamydia is one of the most widespread STDs in the United States, with the CDC estimating that 3 million cases occur annually. Rates of gonorrhea have been increasing sharply over the past 5 years, and certain strains are becoming antibiotic resistant.