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How Is Chlamydia Transmitted From Person To Person

How Long Does It Take To Show Up On A Test

Chlamydia: Sexually Transmitted Infection Symptoms and Treatment

There are several tests that you doctor might use to diagnose chlamydia:

  • Urine test. Youll pee in a cup thats sent off to a laboratory testing facility to see if any chlamydia bacteria are present in your urine.
  • Blood test. Your doctor will use a sterile needle to draw some of your blood and send it to a lab to see if antibodies to the chlamydia bacteria are present in your bloodstream.
  • Swab. Your doctor will use a cotton round or stick to take a small sample of tissue or fluid that carries the infection, which is then sent to a lab to be cultured so that lab technicians can see what bacteria grows from the sample.

How long it takes for the results to show up depends on the test and on your specific health insurance plan.

  • Urine tests take about 2 to 5 days to show a positive or negative result.
  • Blood tests can come back with results in a few minutes if the blood is analyzed on site. But they can take a week or more if sent to an off-site lab.
  • Swab results take about 2 to 3 days to show a positive or negative.

1 to 3 weeks to show up in people with vulvas.

Symptoms may take up a few months to show up. This is because bacteria are living creatures and have an incubation period that affects how long it takes them to cluster together and become infectious.

This incubation period is dependent on a variety of factors, including:

How Is Chlamydia Spread

You can get chlamydia by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia.

If your sex partner is male you can still get chlamydia even if he does not ejaculate .

If youve had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can still get infected again. This can happen if you have unprotected sex with someone who has chlamydia.

Probability Of Chlamydia Transmission

If someone knows or suspects they have been exposed to chlamydia, they should get tested as soon as possible, so that they can have the infection diagnosed and treated if necessary. They should also abstain from sexual activities until they have been tested and received the all-clear.

That said, if someone has had unprotected sex with an infected person, it does not necessarily mean they definitely have chlamydia.

Estimated transmission rates tend to vary and, as discussed above, the likelihood of infection depends on the sexual act performed but Professor Victoria von Sadovszky, an expert from the Ohio State University College of Nursing, states that the transmission rate from a single unprotected exposure is thought to be around 25 percent.

Other estimates put the male-to-female transmission rate from one sexual instance at 40 percent and the female-to-male transmission rate at 32 percent.

Obviously, the more someone has sex with an infected person, the higher the chances of transmission become.

Using barrier protection can reduce the chances of picking up the infection dramatically. Provided they are used accordingly, condoms are thought to be 99 percent effective at reducing the transmission of STIs.

Find out more about preventing chlamydia transmission on our information page.

Read Also: What Medicine Is Taken For Chlamydia

Where Can I Get More Information

Health care providers with STD consultation requests can contact the STD Clinical Consultation Network . This service is provided by the National Network of STD Clinical Prevention Training Centers and operates five days a week. STDCCN is convenient, simple, and free to health care providers and clinicians. More information is available at www.stdccn.orgexternal icon.

Division of STD Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-38271-800-783-987

References

1. OFarrell N, Morison L, Moodley P, et al. Genital ulcers and concomitant complaints in men attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic: implications for sexually transmitted infections management. Sexually transmitted diseases 2008 35:545-9.

2. White JA. Manifestations and management of lymphogranuloma venereum. Current opinion in infectious diseases 2009 22:57-66.

3. Kreisel KM, Spicknall IH, Gargano JW, Lewis FM, Lewis RM, Markowitz LE, Roberts H, Satcher Johnson A, Song R, St. Cyr SB, Weston EJ, Torrone EA, Weinstock HS. Sexually transmitted infections among US women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2018. Sex Transm Dis 2021 in press.

4. CDC. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2019. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services April 2021.

5. Torrone E, Papp J, Weinstock H. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Among Persons Aged 1439 Years United States, 20072012. MMWR 2014 63:834-8.

Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
  • What is a sexually transmitted infection ?

    A sexually transmitted infection is an infection spread by sexual contact. There are many STIs. This FAQ focuses on chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. These STIs can cause long-term health problems and problems during pregnancy. Having an STI also increases the risk of getting human immunodeficiency virus if you are exposed to it.

  • What is chlamydia?

    Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STI in the United States. Chlamydia is caused by a type of bacteria, which can be passed from person to person during vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex. Infections can occur in the mouth, reproductive organs, urethra, and rectum. In women, the most common place for infection is the cervix .

  • What are the risk factors for chlamydia?

    The following factors increase the risk of getting chlamydia:

  • Having a new sex partner

  • Having more than one sex partner

  • Having a sex partner who has more than one sex partner

  • Having sex with someone who has an STI

  • Having an STI now or in the past

  • Not using condoms consistently when not in a mutually monogamous relationship

  • Exchanging sex for money or drugs

  • What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

    Chlamydia usually does not cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may show up between a few days and several weeks after infection. They may be very mild and can be mistaken for a urinary tract or vaginal infection. The most common symptoms in women include

  • yellow discharge from the vagina or urethra

  • yellow vaginal discharge

  • Recommended Reading: Signs Of Chlamydia In Males

    You Can Get Chlamydia More Than Once

    With some diseases, having one infection makes you immune to future infections. That’s not the case with chlamydia. If you engage in sexual activity with a person who has a chlamydia infection, you can get it again, even if you’ve just completed treatment for it.

    “Both partners should be treated before reinitiating sexual intercourse to prevent relapse,” Schaffir says.

    How Can Chlamydia Be Prevented

    Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of getting or giving chlamydia.53 The surest way to avoid chlamydia is to abstain from vaginal, anal, and oral sex, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

    Read Also: Where Can I Get Chlamydia Tablets

    Condom Use During The Treatment Period

    • Avoid having sex without a condom during treatment because the infection can still be transmitted. Use condoms for 7 days after the start of treatment and until 7 days after all current sexual contacts have been treated.
    • If you are on a combined oral contraceptive pill, use a condom for 14 days when having sex, as antibiotics can affect the reliability of the contraceptive pill.

    After completing the treatment, phone your doctor or return to the clinic for a follow-up after 3 months to check you have not been re-infected.

    Essential Facts About Chlamydia

    What is chlamydia? | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

    Chlamydia often causes no symptoms in the short term, but it can have serious health consequences if it goes untreated.

    If youre sexually active, you should know about chlamydia, a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection. These 10 facts will bring you up to speed on whos at risk, why regular screening is so important, and how to avoid getting chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections .

    Also Check: Signs Of Chlamydia In Men

    Other Complications Of Untreated Chlamydia In All People

    • Conjunctivitis, spread by touching the infected area and then touching the hand to the eye
    • Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum , if the chlamydia is from anal sex
    • Varied symptoms, such as joint and eye inflammation, caused by bacterial infection
    • Lymphogranuloma venereum, or LGV. This is caused by a type of chlamydia that is usually rare in the United States, but it is becoming more common in men who have sex with men. It causes open sores in the genital area, headache, fever, fatigue, and swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin. It also causes proctitis in people who get chlamydia through anal sex.

    How Can You Tell If You Have Chlamydia

    You can have chlamydia without experiencing any symptoms. In fact, many womenâapproximately 70% of those who are infectedâare completely asymptomatic, which means that they are also unaware that they are carrying Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria.

    The lack of symptoms can cause health problems over time because an untreated chlamydia infection can lead to complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease . Also, if you become pregnant and have chlamydia, you may develop an ectopic pregnancy . Some people with untreated chlamydia may develop reactive arthritis, a form of joint inflammation thatâs caused by the chlamydia bacterium . Untreated chlamydia can also damage your reproductive organs, which could potentially lead to infertility.

    Thankfully, effective treatments exist for chlamydial infections. But to get treatment, you first need to determine if you have chlamydia in the first place. As mentioned above, you could have chlamydia without any symptoms. But there are certain telltale symptoms you may experience that can help identify it.

    Chlamydia symptoms look very different in men and women. If your male partner experiences urethritis , or has discharge from his penis, he may have chlamydia. If thatâs the case, you should both test for sexually transmitted infections.

    Read Also: Can You Get Symptoms Of Chlamydia The Next Day

    Who Does Chlamydia Affect

    Anyone whos sexually active can get chlamydia. The bacteria that causes chlamydia gets transmitted through vaginal fluid and semen, which means that people of all genders who have sex can become infected with chlamydia and infect their partners, too. If youre pregnant and have chlamydia, you can pass it on to your newborn.

    Who Is At Risk For Chlamydia

    How Chlamydia Is Diagnosed

    Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia. It is a very common STD, especially among young people.3 It is estimated that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 years has chlamydia.5

    Sexually active young people are at high risk of acquiring chlamydia for a combination of behavioral, biological, and cultural reasons. Some young people dont use condoms consistently.15 Some adolescents may move from one monogamous relationship to the next more rapidly than the likely infectivity period of chlamydia, thus increasing risk of transmission.16 Teenage girls and young women may have cervical ectopy .17 Cervical ectopy may increase susceptibility to chlamydial infection. The higher prevalence of chlamydia among young people also may reflect multiple barriers to accessing STD prevention services, such as lack of transportation, cost, and perceived stigma.16-20

    Men who have sex with men are also at risk for chlamydial infection since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sex. Among MSM screened for rectal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 3.0% to 10.5%.6.7 Among MSM screened for pharyngeal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 0.5% to 2.3%.7.8

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    Chlamydia Is Common But Many People Dont Realize They Have It

    About 1.7 million chlamydia infections were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017, but the real number is likely higher because chlamydia is considered an underreported infection.

    “The number of reported cases is substantially lower than the true estimated incidence,” says Bradley Stoner, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and former president of the American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association.

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System relies on state and local public health departments to collect and report data on chlamydia to the CDC. Those public health departments depend on individual physicians, hospitals, and laboratories to report cases of chlamydia to them. Accurate statistics require all parties to routinely comply with disease-reporting mandates.

    Can Chlamydia Be Cured

    Yes, chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. It is important that you take all of the medication your doctor prescribes to cure your infection. When taken properly it will stop the infection and could decrease your chances of having complications later on. You should not share medication for chlamydia with anyone.

    Repeat infection with chlamydia is common. You should be tested again about three months after you are treated, even if your sex partner was treated.

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    What Happens If Chlamydia Goes Untreated

    If a person is not treated for chlamydia, complications may occur. Women frequently develop pelvic inflammatory disease . PID can cause infertility , chronic pelvic pain, tubal pregnancies, and the continued spread of the disease. In men, untreated chlamydia can cause urethral infection and complications such as swollen and tender testicles. Chlamydia infection during pregnancy may result in premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery and possible tubal pregnancy in a small percent of women. In addition, chlamydia can cause conjunctival and pneumonic infection in the newborn. Persons with a chlamydia infection have an increased chance of getting other infections such as gonorrhea or HIV.

    Can You Develop A Chlamydia Infection On Your Own

    Chlamydia and fertility

    Fortunately, you canât contract chlamydia on your own because it spreads through sexual contact with other people.

    Chlamydia bacteria does, however, thrive in vaginal fluid, semen, and pre-ejaculate . For that reason, using a latex condom properly during sexual intercourse and avoiding any kind of unprotected sex is the best way to protect yourself from developing or passing on a chlamydia infection. Caution is important, but fear is unnecessary: you donât need to worry about contracting chlamydia from kissing someone or sitting on a public toilet seat.

    Read Also: If You Have Chlamydia Does That Mean You Have Hiv

    Signs And Symptoms Of Chlamydia In Women

    Chlamydia infects the cervix . Women often have no obvious signs of illness, especially soon after being infected. When symptoms do occur, common signs include a burning pain with urination, pain with intercourse, or an abnormal, smelly vaginal discharge.

    Chlamydia can also cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding.

    Its possible for infected body fluids to enter a sex partners eye, causing the clear membrane protecting the outer layer of the eye to become inflamed. Chlamydia can infect the throat after unprotected oral sex, but its less common and usually doesnt cause symptoms.

    What Are The Symptoms

    Often people with chlamydia will have no symptoms and will not know that they have the infection.

    A chlamydia infection in the rectum may cause discharge from the anus, rectal pain, mucous with stools, painful bowel movements and redness in the anal area.

    For men, symptoms can include:

    • Clear or mucous-like fluid from the penis
    • Pain or a burning feeling when urinating
    • Itching or irritation in the urethra the tube that urine passes through

    For women, symptoms can include:

    • Change in amount and/or colour of fluid from the vagina
    • Pain or a burning feeling when urinating
    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting between periods or after sexual intercourse
    • Pain in the lower abdomen
    • Pain during vaginal sex

    Chlamydia infection may occur in the throat but does not usually cause symptoms.

    Symptoms may appear 2 to 3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria. Sometimes it can take as long as 6 weeks for the symptoms to appear, if at all.

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    How Do You Get Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is a bacterial infection. The bacteria are usually spread through sex or contact with infected genital fluids .

    You can get chlamydia through:

    • unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex
    • sharing sex toys that are not washed or covered with a new condom each time they’re used
    • your genitals coming into contact with your partner’s genitals this means you can get chlamydia from someone even if there’s no penetration, orgasm or ejaculation
    • infected semen or vaginal fluid getting into your eye

    It can also be passed by a pregnant woman to her baby.

    Chlamydia cannot be passed on through casual contact, such as kissing and hugging, or from sharing baths, towels, swimming pools, toilet seats or cutlery.

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    About 100 million people are infected each year by statistics transmitted sexually.

    But most likely, that the number of such people more at times, because often the symptoms of the disease do not manifest and not all go to the doctor with such a delicate problem. The most common venereal ailments provoke three types of bacteria: ureplazma, Trichomonas and chlamydia. Let’s talk about what are dangerous and how chlamydia is transmitted.

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    I Was Treated For Chlamydia When Can I Have Sex Again

    You should not have sex again until you and your sex partner have completed treatment. If your doctor prescribes a single dose of medication, you should wait seven days after taking the medicine before having sex. If your doctor prescribes a medicine for you to take for seven days, you should wait until you have taken all of the doses before having sex.

    More About Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    For women, one of the most serious complications from untreated chlamydia is pelvic inflammatory disease .

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1020% of women with untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea infections may develop PID. And 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. PID can also cause ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain.

    Like chlamydia, it is possible for a woman to have PID and not have any symptoms, or have symptoms too mild to notice, for an unknown period of time. If symptoms do occur, they could include:

    • Dull pain or tenderness in the lower abdomen
    • Burning or pain when you urinate
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Increased or changed vaginal discharge
    • Pain during sex

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