Of Participation And Request For Credit
Fees for participating and receiving CME credit for this activity are as posted on The ObG Project website. During the period from Dec 31 2017 through Jan 25 2023, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures and study the educational activity.
If you wish to receive acknowledgment for completing this activity, please complete the post-test and evaluation. Upon registering and successfully completing the post-test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation, your certificate will be made available immediately.
For Pharmacists: Upon successfully completing the post-test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation form, transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4 weeks.
Possible Though Unlikely Sources Of Trich:
There are a few ways that trich can be spread without having sexual relations:
- Public Pools: If the water in a community swimming pool is not properly cleaned and filtered, it is possible for the parasite to survive and infect others.
- Sharing damp clothing, towels or swimsuits: Much like the pool, if clothes are not properly washed, it is technically possible for the infection to spread from wearer to wearer.
Of course, please remember that sexual activity is by far the most common source of infection. While these potential sources can be comforting to a worried partner, they are quite unlikely to actually be the cause. Compared to skin-to-skin contact, the reports of trich being spread through these means are few and far between.
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How Is Bv Treated
Bacterial vaginosis is treated with antibiotics, which your doctor will prescribe. The most common type of medicine used to treat BV is metronidazole. BV is different than a yeast infection , and over-the-counter yeast infection creams will not cure BV. Because bacterial vaginosis is not a sexually transmitted infection, you dont need to inform your male partner about the condition, because men cannot contract bacterial vaginosis. However, if you have a female partner, its possible that she may also BV and should be tested. It is possible to have recurrent bouts of vaginitis, so its best to practice safe sex and also lower risks in other ways to prevent getting BV again.
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Can Bacterial Vaginosis Be Cured
BV will sometimes go away without treatment. But if you have symptoms of BV you should be checked and treated. It is important that you take all of the medicine prescribed to you, even if your symptoms go away. A health care provider can treat BV with antibiotics, but BV may return even after treatment. Treatment may also reduce the risk for some STDs.
Male sex partners of women diagnosed with BV generally do not need to be treated. BV may be transferred between female sex partners.
Check If You Have Bacterial Vaginosis
The most common symptom of bacterial vaginosis is unusual vaginal discharge that has a strong fishy smell, particularly after sex.
You may notice a change to the colour and consistency of your discharge, such as becoming greyish-white and thin and watery.
But 50% of women with bacterial vaginosis do not have any symptoms.
Bacterial vaginosis does not usually cause any soreness or itching.
If youre unsure its BV, check for other causes of unusual vaginal discharge.
Can You Have Bv And An Std At The Same Time
It is possible to have trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis together, each of which can be treated with metronidazole. If you visit your health care professional to see if you have a vaginal infection, you should schedule your examination when you are not having your period.
Can chlamydia be mixed up with BV?
An example of mixed vaginitis is a positive PCR result for Chlamydia in a patient with a malodorous discharge of BV. Both pathogens would require treatment.
Is There A Cure For Bv
A healthcare provider can treat BV with antibiotics. If you have symptoms, you should be checked and treated by a healthcare provider. It is important to take all the medicine your provider prescribes, even if your symptoms go away. Treatment also may reduce the risk for getting other STDs. BV can return even after treatment.
Male sex partners of women with BV do not need treatment. However, BV can spread between female sex partners.
Medical And Laboratory Data
Diagnosis of BV in the clinic was based on Amsel’s criteria requiring three or more of the following clinical/diagnostic features:
The presence of homogeneous vaginal discharge
Elevated vaginal pH greater than or equal to 5.0
Positive amine test
20% clue cells and typical Gram stain appearance upon microscopy of vaginal secretions including absence of lactobacilli.
The diagnosis of BV was made as part of routine patient assessment by all the clinicians working in the department. All medical and nursing staff had undergone training for their clinical and laboratory work and were subject to quality control procedures with regard to microscopic diagnosis.
Chlamydia Signs And Symptoms In Guy
Several males do not see the signs and symptoms of chlamydia. Many men have no symptoms in any way.
If signs do appear, its generally 1 to 3 weeks after transmission.
Some of one of the most usual signs of chlamydia in males include:
- shedding sensation throughout urination
- discomfort in the lower abdomen
- discomfort in the testicles
Having foreplay with someone that has the infection raises the threat of obtaining chlamydia in the throat. Symptoms can consist of an aching throat, cough, or high temperature. Its also feasible to bring bacteria in the throat and also not know it. Can You Have Bv And Chlamydia At The Same Time
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Bacterial Vaginosis Questions And Answers
What is BV?
What are the Symptoms of BV?
Common BV symptoms include:
-Thin, white or gray vaginal discharge
-Vaginal irritation, burning or itch
-Foul smelling, fishy vaginal odor
-Discomfort with urination
Sometimes, there are no symptoms with BV at all. Other times, BV symptoms can be mistaken for other problems such as UTI, yeast infection or other causes of pelvic infections such as Trichomonas, Chlamydia or Gonorrhea.
What causes BV?
Is BV Dangerous?
For most women, BV is not harmful and sometimes resolves on its own. However, BV can cause Pelvic inflammatory Disease which is a severe pelvic infection which can result in infertility. BV can also be problematic for pregnant women because it increases the chances of pre-term delivery.
Having BV can also increase a persons chances of contracting HIV, gonorrhea and chlamydia.
How is BV treated?
BV can be treated with antibiotics but there are also several natural treatments which can be effective in treating BV.
Are there any natural remedies for BV and can it be prevented?
Prevention is always better than a cure. BV can be prevented and can also be treated naturally. The most important step in treating BV naturally is identifying and correcting the underlying root cause. Probiotics, yogurt, coconut oil, garlic, essential oils, safe sex and proper hygiene are all helpful natural treatments. You should partner with your health care provider to come up with a natural treatment plan for BV.
Can A Bacterial Infection Be Mistaken For Chlamydia
Other times, BV symptoms can be mistaken for other problems such as UTI, yeast infection or other causes of pelvic infections such as Trichomonas, Chlamydia or Gonorrhea.
Is bacterial vaginosis a symptom of an STD?
BV isnt considered a sexually transmitted disease . But the chances of getting it seem to go up with the number of sexual partners a woman has.
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What Can Happen If Bv Is Not Treated
It is somewhat rare that untreated BV can lead to complications and other problems, but it is possible, so treating BV swiftly is a priority. The most serious complication BV can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease . This goes beyond a vaginal infection and involves infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes. PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility.
If you are pregnant and have bacterial vaginosis, which is quite common, leaving it untreated can lead to preterm birth and low birth weight. If you suspect you have BV, notify your obstetrician immediately.
Untreated BV can also raise your risk of contracting certain sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Doctors are not sure why this correlation exists. A woman with BV is also more likely to contract herpes simplex virus or HIV. Having BV also increases the odds that a woman with a sexually transmitted infection will pass it on to her partner.
Bacterial vaginosis also increases the risk of gynecological surgery complications post-surgery. This includes surgery such as dilation and curettage or hysterectomy.
How Do You Treat Chronic Bv
Bacterial vaginosis is a common but treatable condition, with a number of effective available treatments, including oral and intravaginal metronidazole and clindamycin and oral tinidazole. However, as many as 50% of women with BV experience recurrence within 1 year of treatment for incident disease.
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What Happens If You Treat Bv But Don’t Have It
If BV doesn’t clear up on its own or you don’t properly treat it, it can increase your risk of contracting an STI, such as HIV, chlamydia, or gonorrhea. If you’re pregnant, it can also increase your risk of early delivery. Untreated BV also increases your risk for a condition called pelvic inflammatory disease.
Gonorrhea Vs Chlamydia: Whats The Difference
The two most common STDs are chlamydia and gonorrhea. Both conditions are caused by an overgrowth of bacteria. Chlamydia is caused by an overgrowth of the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, while gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
In terms of symptoms, both chlamydia and gonorrhea may result in a burning sensation during urination and an abnormal discharge from the genitals.
Most people who have chlamydia or gonorrhea do not present symptoms. Even if you do have symptoms, they may not appear for weeks after sexual intercourse with an infected partner.
Because chlamydia and gonorrhea present nearly identical symptoms or none at all, it is important to frequently get tested for STDs.
Each year almost 4 million people will contract chlamydia or gonorrhea. Continuing reading to find out more about chlamydia vs gonorrhea.
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What Can Happen If You Have Bv For A Long Time
Most often, BV does not cause other health problems.However, if left untreated, BV may increase yourrisk for:
- Sexually transmitted diseases like herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV
- Pelvic inflammatory disease where BV bacteria infect the uterus or fallopian tubes. Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause infertility and increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
- An infection after a procedure on the female organs. This includes cesarean section, abortion, and surgery on the cervix or uterus.
- Early labor or birth, if pregnant
If you have BV:
- Always finish antibiotic treatment, even if the signs of BV go away
- Talk to female sex partners about getting BV treatment
What Treats Bv Chlamydia
In diagnosing bacterial vaginosis, it is important to exclude other serious vaginal infections, such as STDs gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. Treatment options for relief of bacterial vaginosis include prescription oral antibiotics and vaginal gels. Metronidazole is one option for treating bacterial vaginosis.
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How Is Chlamydia Diagnosed
The most common test for chlamydia is called a nucleic acid amplification test . Your provider takes a sample of fluid by doing a vaginal/cervical swab or collecting a urine sample. Then, they send the sample off to a lab to check for the bacteria that causes chlamydia. Your provider may do the test in an office, or they may ask you to do an at-home chlamydia test. Follow your providers instructions carefully to ensure you get accurate test results.
Because most chlamydia cases are asymptomatic, its important to get screened for chlamydia even if you dont notice any signs of infection. The CDC recommends that sexually active cisgender women who are high-risk for chlamydia get screened regularly. Women, more so than men, experience the most severe complications from chlamydia. Transgender men and nonbinary individuals with vaginas should be screened regularly, too, as they can experience the same complications of chlamydia.
Youre considered high-risk if you:
- Have had chlamydia infections previously.
Cisgender men, or trans and nonbinary individuals with penises, should be screened for chlamydia if:
- They live in a setting where chlamydia spreads frequently, like correctional facilities, adolescent clinics and sexual health clinics.
- They have sex with other men.
Bacterial Vaginosis In Pregnancy
If you develop bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy, there’s a small chance of complications, such as premature birth or miscarriage.
But BV causes no problems in the majority of pregnancies.
Speak to a GP or your midwife if you’re pregnant and your vaginal discharge changes.
Page last reviewed: 22 November 2018 Next review due: 22 November 2021
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How Common Is Chlamydia
Chlamydia is the most common STI caused by bacteria. Nearly 2 million cases of chlamydia were reported to the CDC in 2019. The number of infections is likely even higher. When compared to previous years, 2019 infection rates increased among people of all genders, all races and ethnicities, and in every region of the U.S. Most cases of chlamydia are asymptomatic, which means there are no signs or symptoms of an infection. Many of these cases likely go unreported.
Certain demographic characteristics may make you more likely to get diagnosed with chlamydia. Youre more likely to get diagnosed if youre:
- A teen or young adult aged 15 to 24. More than half of all diagnosed chlamydia cases in the U.S. occur in this age group.
- A cisgender woman aged 15 to 24. Young women in this age group are targeted for chlamydia screenings, and the rate of infection among those who are tested is high.
- A man who has sex with men . Chlamydia infections disproportionately affect men who have sex with men.
- Black and non-Hispanic. Chlamydia infections disproportionately affect non-Hispanic Black populations.
What Are The Complications Of Pid
If PID isnt treated, it can lead to serious health problems that are sometimes life-threatening. The infection may spread to other parts of your body. PID can increase your risk for ectopic pregnancy, which can be life-threatening. People with PID can experience chronic pain in their lower belly, and infertility.
The longer you have PID, the more likely it is that youll have dangerous long-term health problems and infertility. Thats why its really important to have any symptoms checked out by a doctor, and get tested regularly for STDs the sooner, the better.
PID can be treated. But treatment might not be able to undo damage caused by long-term PID infections.
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A Look At Yeast Infections
Most yeast infections are mild and can clear up within a few days with OTC treatment or prescribed medications. But others can be more severe and may take up to two weeks to clear. Some mild yeast infections can occasionally go away without any treatment and the help of home remedies, but more often than not, you will need OTC or prescription medications to treat the yeast infection.
If you choose to treat your condition with OTC medication or natural remedies and the symptoms dont go away, you need to see a medical professional who can diagnose and treat you. You may be dealing with something other than a yeast infection.
Chlamydia Cdc Fact Sheet
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease that can be easily cured. If left untreated, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant.
Basic Fact Sheet | Detailed Version
Basic fact sheets are presented in plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. The content here can be syndicated .
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Related Conditions And Causes Of Bacterial Vaginosis
If left untreated, bacterial vaginosis can increase a womans risk of developing other medical conditions, including:
- Sexually transmitted diseases Having BV makes a woman more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, herpes, chlamydia, or gonorrhea.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease BV can sometimes lead to PID, an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries that can impair fertility.
- Preterm birth During pregnancy, bacterial vaginosis is linked to premature deliveries and low birth weight babies.
Bv Bacteria Are Found In The Endocervix Of Ct Patients
Figure 3 Paired cervical and vaginal microbiome samples. Heatmap of 25 most abundant bacterial taxa identified by 16S rRNA gene V4 sequencing of vaginal or cervical swabs from Ct clearing and non-clearing women. Matched samples are representative of the three CST groups and demonstrate the similarities in relative abundance of organisms between the vaginal and cervical environments within a woman. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dominant organism in the cervical samples of Ct non-clearers.
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Can An Std Cause A Uti
In short: yes, but rarely. Although most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, this isnt always the case. Other kinds of bacteria, fungi, and viruses can lead to UTIs, though these are less common. In some instances, bacteria that cause STDs, like Chlamydia, can cause urinary tract infections. And because UTIs occur near-sexual organs and can share symptoms with STDs, the two kinds of infections are often erroneously confused.