Rectal Chlamydia Infection In Women At High Risk Of Chlamydia Attending Canberra Sexual Health Centre
- J E A M van Bergen
- N H T M Dukers-Muijrers
- A P van Leeuwen
- M A B van der Sande
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology2017
- The Male Heterâsexual: Lust in His Loins, Sin in His Soul?1997
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender2017
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender2017
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender2017
- Matthew J. Mimiaga and more…Encyclopedia of Epidemiology
How It’s Passed On
You can get chlamydia through:
- sharing sex toys that are not washed or covered with a condom each time they are used on a different person
- your genitals coming into contact with your partners genitals
It’s not yet known whether chlamydia is spread on fingers when you touch an infected part of the body, then touch other parts of your body or someone elses.
If you are living with HIV, having untreated chlamydia could make it more likely that youll pass on HIV during unprotected sex. But if HIV drugs have made your viral load undetectable then chlamydia or other infections dont appear to make you more likely to pass on HIV.
Pharmacokinetic Properties Of Azithromycin And Doxycycline In Rectal Tissue
Several factors may be contributing to treatment failure for rectal chlamydia. Firstly, it is possible that the bioavailability of azithromycin in rectal tissue is less than that observed in urethral or cervical tissue. Early studies found that azithromycin concentrations were above the MIC for chlamydia in cervical mucus 14 days following a single 1 g dose and exceeded the MIC for chlamydia in gynaecological tissue for at least 8 days following a 500 mg dose. With no pharmacokinetic data evaluating azithromycin in rectal tissue available, it is not known whether the drug reaches effective concentrations in rectal tissue. However, data from a study in 1990 reported lower azithromycin concentrations in gastric mucosa compared with urological and gynaecological tissue, which could imply that concentrations may be lower in rectal tissue.
How To Prevent Chlamydia
Using condoms or dental dams can reduce the risk of contracting chlamydia. ItÃ¢s also a good idea to test regularly. Open the dialogue with your partner to chat about the importance of regular testing and how it can reduce any potential long-term risks.
To easily test for chlamydia from the privacy of your home, take the Everlywell Chlamydia & Gonorrhea Test. You can also check for six common sexually transmitted infections with the Everlywell at-home STD Test for men or women.
Young adults, especially those in their college years, are particularly at risk for getting chlamydia. ThatÃ¢s why itÃ¢s especially important to educate yourself on the causes, risks, and ways to regularly test to ensure youÃ¢re not spreading it from partner to partner. If you have any questions or concerns about HPV or other STIs, schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider to discuss risk factors, treatments, and testing options.
When Should I See My Healthcare Provider
When it comes to chlamydia, its a good idea to be proactive. Speak with your healthcare provider about your risks of infection. Make a plan to get screened regularly for STIs based on your providers recommendations for how often you should be tested. Make an appointment with your healthcare provider if your partner tests positive for chlamydia or if you notice any signs or symptoms that you may be infected.
Also Check: What Are The Symptoms Of Chlamydia In Men
Am I At Risk For Chlamydia
If you are sexually active, have an honest and open talk with your healthcare provider. Ask them if you should get tested for chlamydia or other STDs. Gay or bisexual men and pregnant people should also get tested for chlamydia. If you are a sexually active woman, you should get tested for chlamydia every year if you are:
- Younger than 25 years old.
- 25 years and older with risk factors, such as new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection.
What To Do If You Think You’re Infected With Chlamydia
âChlamydia is easily diagnosable and treatable.
Only a lab test will be able to tell you if you currently have chlamydia. If you believe you’re infected with chlamydia, the best thing to do is to seek out a local health care provider and get tested.
Read the next article for more information regarding chlamydia treatments.
Read Also: Can You Take Any Antibiotics For Chlamydia
Will My Birth Control Work If I Am Taking Antibiotics
There is very little evidence to show that antibiotics make hormonal forms of birth control not work very well. Examples of hormonal birth control include the pill, the patch, the ring or the shot. If you are being treated with antibiotics, it is important to keep using your birth control as you normally would. If you have concerns, use condoms until your next period comes after completing the antibiotics, or speak to your health care provider for more information.
What Is The Treatment
If you or your partner do not finish the treatment, miss pills or have unprotected sex before you have finished all of the medication, there is a chance that the infection will stay in your body may pass back to you or your partner and cause health problems later. If this happens, talk with your health care provider who will help you to decide if you or your partners need more treatment.
Because re-infection is common, a follow-up test is recommended 6 months after treatment. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, have a follow-up test 3 to 4 weeks after completing treatment.
Recommended Reading: Chlamydia Resolve On Its Own
What Are The Treatments For Chlamydia
Antibiotics will cure the infection. You may get a one-time dose of the antibiotics, or you may need to take medicine every day for 7 days. Antibiotics cannot repair any permanent damage that the disease has caused.
To prevent spreading the disease to your partner, you should not have sex until the infection has cleared up. If you got a one-time dose of antibiotics, you should wait 7 days after taking the medicine to have sex again. If you have to take medicine every day for 7 days, you should not have sex again until you have finished taking all of the doses of your medicine.
It is common to get a repeat infection, so you should get tested again about three months after treatment.
Im Pregnant How Does Chlamydia Affect My Baby
If you are pregnant and have chlamydia, you can give the infection to your baby during delivery. This can cause an eye infection or pneumonia in your baby. Having chlamydia may also make it more likely to deliver your baby early.
If you are pregnant, you should receive testing for chlamydia at your first prenatal visit. Talk to your healthcare provider about getting the correct examination, testing, and treatment. Testing and treatment are the best ways to prevent health problems.
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Chlamydia Symptoms In Guy
Lots of men do not discover the signs and symptoms of chlamydia. Most males have no signs and symptoms whatsoever.
If symptoms do appear, its normally 1 to 3 weeks after transmission.
Some of one of the most usual signs and symptoms of chlamydia in guys consist of:
- burning experience throughout peeing
- pain in the lower abdominal area
- pain in the testicles
Its likewise possible to get a chlamydia infection in the rectum. In this instance, the main signs are usually discharge, pain, as well as hemorrhaging from this area.
Having foreplay with somebody who has the infection elevates the threat of obtaining chlamydia in the throat. Signs and symptoms can include a sore throat, cough, or high temperature. Its also feasible to bring bacteria in the throat and not know it. Symptoms Of Gonorrhea And Chlamydia In Females
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What Does A Positive Chlamydia Test Result Mean
If the test is positive, the lab detected the bacteria that cause chlamydia. This means you have a chlamydia infection and will need treatment . You will also need to notify your sexual partners, so they can get tested, too.
After finishing treatment, you will need additional follow-up chlamydia tests. You may need another test three weeks after treatment and possibly another test three months later. Ask your provider when you should get a follow-up test.
Read Also: How Do You Know If You Have Chlamydia Male
Also Check: What Does Having Chlamydia Feel Like
How Is It Spread
Sometimes a person with chlamydia will have no symptoms. Even without symptoms, the infection passes easily to another person.
If you have a chlamydia infection you will be able to pass the infection on to others until you complete antibiotic treatment.
If you are pregnant, you may pass the infection to you baby’s eyes during childbirth. This may lead to blindness if the baby is not treated. If you have chlamydia during pregnancy, the baby may develop pneumonia.
Chlamydia treatment does not protect you from getting it again. If you are treated and your sex partners are not, the bacteria could pass back to you again.
How Common Is Chlamydia
CDC estimates that there were four million chlamydial infections in 2018.3 Chlamydia is also the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States.4 It is difficult to account for many cases of chlamydia. Most people with the infection have no symptoms and do not seek testing. Chlamydia is most common among young people. Two-thirds of new chlamydial infections occur among youth aged 15-24 years.3 Estimates show that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 years has chlamydia.5
Disparities persist among racial and ethnic minority groups. In 2020, chlamydia rates for African Americans/Blacks were six times that of Whites.4 Chlamydia is also common among MSM. Among MSM screened for rectal chlamydial infection, positivity ranges from 3.0% to 10.5%.6,7 Among MSM screened for pharyngeal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranges from 0.5% to 2.3%.7.8
Read Also: Difference Between Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
I Was Treated For Chlamydia When Can I Have Sex Again
You should not have sex again until you and your sex partner have completed treatment. If your doctor prescribes a single dose of medication, you should wait seven days after taking the medicine before having sex. If your doctor prescribes a medicine for you to take for seven days, you should wait until you have taken all of the doses before having sex.
Recommended Reading: How Do Females Get Tested For Chlamydia
Untreated Chlamydia Symptoms In Men
In men, untreated chlamydia can lead to urethral scarring and infection, swollen and tender testicles, prostatitis, and male sterility. Chlamydia can cause nongonococcal urethritis , an infection of the urethra, as well as epididymitis, an infection of the epididymis .
Reactive arthritis is a painful form of inflammatory arthritis that can occur in reaction to certain bacterial infections, including chlamydial infection. It can cause pain and swelling of certain joints, often the knees and/or ankles, as well as the heels, toes, or fingers. It may also cause persistent lower back pain. If you develop arthritis within a month of chlamydia infection, you should see a health care provider, like a rheumatologist, to determine the best course of treatment.6
What Can You Do?
To prevent chlamydia from progressing and causing complications, get tested for chlamydia to know for sure if you have it. Regularly testing for sexually transmitted diseases is a normal and important part of being responsible and protecting your health while being sexually active, so theres no need to be worried or ashamed about getting tested or diagnosed. Chlamydia is very common and easily curable with a prescribed course of antibiotics.
Also Check: Pictures Of Chlamydia In The Eye
What Is The Treatment For Chlamydia
Antibiotics can easily cure chlamydia. Treatment options are the same, whether a person also has HIV or not.
Patients treated with single-dose antibiotics should not have sex for seven days. Patients treated with a seven-day course of antibiotics should not have sex until they complete treatment, and their symptoms are gone. This helps prevent spreading the infection to sex partners. It is important to take all medicine prescribed to cure chlamydia. Medicine should not be shared with anyone. Although treatment will cure the infection, it will not repair any long-term damage done by the disease. If a persons symptoms continue for more than a few days after receiving treatment, a healthcare provider should reevaluate them.
Repeat infection with chlamydia is common.49 Women whose sex partners do not receive appropriate treatment are at high risk for re-infection. Having multiple chlamydial infections increases a womans risk of serious reproductive health problems .50,51A healthcare provider should retest those with chlamydia about three months after treatment of an initial infection. Retesting is necessary even if their partners receive successful treatment.40
Infants with chlamydia may develop conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia.10 Healthcare providers can treat infection in infants with antibiotics.
Practice Safer Sex By Using A Condom
Important things to remember when using condoms:
- Check the condom package for damage. Do not use a damaged condom
- Check the expiry date. Do not use a condom after its expiry date
- Carefully open the package so that the condom does not tear. Do not use a condom that has been torn
- Keep condoms away from sharp objects such as rings, studs or piercings
- Store condoms at room temperature
- Use a new condom every time you have sex. Do not reuse condoms
- Do not use 2 condoms at once. Using 2 condoms together may result in a condom breaking
- Use only water-based lubricants with external latex condoms. Oil-based lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, lotion or baby oil, can weaken and destroy latex
- Water or oil-based lubricant may be used with polyurethane/nitrile condoms
- Use only condoms made of latex or polyurethane/nitrile/polyisoprene rubbers. Latex and polyurethane condoms are the best types of condoms to use to help prevent pregnancy and STIs.
- Avoid using condoms with spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 as it can irritate tissue and may increase the chance of getting an STI
Impact Of The Rectal Microbiome On Chlamydia
The unique microbiome of the rectum is another factor that may make rectal chlamydia more difficult to clear. In vivo, IFN- up-regulates the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan. The genital strains of chlamydia are tryptophan auxotrophs, but have retained the trpBA genes in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway. This enables them to back-synthesize tryptophan from indole, a compound that is present in the rectum as a product of some bacteria . The availability of indole in the rectum could aid the recovery of chlamydia at this site from attack by the host and could therefore influence how well chlamydia responds to treatment and is cleared. While there is ongoing research investigating the role of the microbiome in cervical chlamydia infection, it should also be investigated for its role in sustaining rectal infection.
When To Seek Medical Advice
If you have any symptoms of chlamydia, visit your GP, community contraceptive service or local genitourinary medicine clinic as soon as possible.
You should also get tested if you don’t have any symptoms but are concerned you could have a sexually transmitted infection .
If you’re a woman, sexually active and under 25 in England, it’s recommended that you have a chlamydia test once a year, and when you have sex with new or casual partners.
If you’re a man, sexually active and under 25 in England, it’s recommended that you have a chlamydia test once a year if you are not using condoms with new or casual partners.
Read more about chlamydia diagnosis.
Page last reviewed: 01 September 2021 Next review due: 01 September 2024
Recommended Reading: Does Any Antibiotics Get Rid Of Chlamydia
How Does Chlamydia Spread
As chlamydial infection often has no symptoms, a person may have the infection and pass it on to a sexual partner without knowing.
It is not possible to pass on chlamydia through:
- contact with a toilet seat
- sharing a sauna
- touching a surface that a person with chlamydia has touched
- standing close to a person who has the infection
- coughs or sneezes
- conjunctivitis or pneumonia in the newborn
How Is Chlamydia Screening Done
A person can test for chlamydia at home or in the lab. They can take either a urine sample or a swab.
- Females can take a swab, place it in a container, and send it to a laboratory.
- Males will usually use a urine test.
A doctor can advise individuals on the best option. They may also recommend rectal or throat testing, especially for people who are living with HIV.
Home screening tests are available, but it is not always easy to do them correctly at home. A healthcare provider will usually recommend following up on any home tests by visiting a doctors office.
The person will likely need to provide a urine sample for a test to confirm a diagnosis. After treatment, they will need to retake the test to ensure that the treatment has worked.
If anyone wishes to try home testing, chlamydia screening test kits are available for purchase online.
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