Chlamydia Trachomatis And Co
C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae are the two most common bacterial causes of lower genital tract infection. Clinical findings need to be corroborated with the laboratory investigations as the signs and symptoms of both are indistinguishable. Therefore, in the syndromic approach used in resource-limited settings, urethral discharge is simultaneously treated for both. C. trachomatis is recovered more often from women who acquire gonorrhoea than from similarly exposed women who do not acquire gonorrhoea. In individuals with gonorrhoea, there exists a 15-40 per cent higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia. Further, individuals infected with both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae shed larger number of C. trachomatis than those infected with C. trachomatis alone. These data suggest that acquisition of a gonococcal infection either reactivates a persistent chlamydial infection or increases the susceptibility of the host to Chlamydia. Post-gonococcal urethritis is often due to C. trachomatis infection which is not cured by conventional therapy against gonorrhoea. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with N. gonorrheae has been reported to range between 1.1 to 67 per cent,,,,.
What Does Discharge Look Like
Vaginal discharge is the result of the cervix cleaning and maintaining itself to stay healthy. During this process, the cervix sheds vaginal cells, cervical mucus, and vaginal fluids which results in a white, opaque substance. Women who havenât yet reached menopause typically experience discharge because itâs a natural part of the bodyâs functions.
What color is discharge and what is it supposed to look like?
The answer to that will vary from person-to-person, but most women have a white vaginal discharge. As soon as a womenâs menstrual cycle ends, her discharge will be minimal. By the time of ovulation during her cycle, many will notice a stringy discharge and it may even begin to thicken.
However, itâs important to note that women on oral contraceptives may have a reduced amount of discharge, making it harder to identify what ânormalâ is for you. However, if you are experiencing a yellow, brown discharge or even an orange discharge color, it may mean you have a sexually transmitted infection. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis infections can all cause changes in a woman’s discharge.
What Happens If Chlamydia Goes Untreated
A sexually transmitted infection of chlamydia can cause an infection of the cervix, urethra, and fallopian tubes in people with female reproductive organs .
As time progresses and an untreated chlamydia infection continues to spread, serious and long-term consequences like pelvic inflammatory disease , ectopic pregnancy, infertility, or chronic pelvic pain may develop in individuals with female reproductive organs. Chlamydia bacteria travel up the reproductive tract from the vagina through the cervix to the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes, causing inflammation and infection. Once inside, the bacteria damage the ovaries and fallopian tubes, and can cause scarring . This can have long-term effects including infertility, as scar tissue can block the fallopian tubes, preventing sperm from fertilizing an egg. Ectopic pregnancies are also more common, as a fertilized egg may get stuck in the damaged fallopian tubeâthis can be life threatening.
Chronic pelvic pain is also a possible long-term consequence of untreated chlamydia infections and is a symptom of PID .
In people with male reproductive organs, chlamydia can cause an infection of the urethra and epididymis, the tube that collects and stores sperm from the testicles .
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What Does A Chlamydia Infection Look Like
Most infections dont have visible signs at least 70% of women and 50% of men who have been diagnosed have no symptoms of chlamydia at all. If chlamydia does cause visible symptoms, these differ between men and women
Visible signs in women:
- Discharge chlamydia doesnt normally cause signs that you can see on the skin of the vulva. Often however, there may be a change in vaginal discharge changes are very variable, but usually there is more discharge than usual, and it may be mucousy, stringy or even blood stained, with pus.
- Cervical inflammation and bleeding chlamydia can cause inflammation at the cervix and cause the outer portion of the cervix to look very red, this is a condition called cervicitis. This wouldnt be visible under normal circumstances, but would be visible if a doctor examined you. The cervix often bleeds easily, so this is something that you might notice during or after sexual activity
- Signs of pus or swelling during a pelvic examination sometimes a doctor or nurse might examine you, to do this they will insert two fingers into the vagina and feels the abdomen with the other hand. This sometimes reveals tenderness within the pelvis, especially on touching or moving the cervix, or around the uterus and Fallopian tubes. There may be swelling of the tubes and ovaries, this is called a ‘hydrosalpinx’, or if there is pus present within the tubes, a ‘pyosalpinx’
Visible signs in men:
- During a rectal examination:
Visible signs in men and women:
Human Papillomavirus In Women
Genital Human Papillomavirus, or genital HPV, is a sexually transmitted disease spread through vaginal, oral or anal sex. It is extremely common and in many cases will go away on its own without displaying symptoms.
42% of US population aged 18-59 had genital herpes , most in their late teens and early 20s, are infected with HPV. There are over 100 varieties of HPV, some strains cause warts while others may lead to an increased risk of certain cancers. The HPV vaccine can help prevent more serious and high risk strains of HPV.
HPV symptoms in women may appear as small bumps or warts, individually or in groups over the infected genital area. They can grow on the vulva, the walls of the vagina, or in and around the anal canal. They can be small or large, elevated or flat, and may be shaped like cauliflower.
That said, many women do not experience symptoms and can be diagnosed with a regular Pap test by a doctor.
Unfortunately, HPV cannot be cured but the body is typically able to fight it off and in most cases symptoms will go away on their own. When HPV does not go away, it can cause more serious health problems including:
- Cervical cancer
- Oropharyngeal cancer
- Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
If you think you have HPV, schedule an appointment with a PlushCare physician who can order you an HPV test.
HPV infection is transmitted through anal, vaginal, and oral sex or skin-to-skin contact.
HPV symptoms in men include warts on your penis, scrotum, and/or anus.
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Chlamydia Symptoms In Women:
- testicular pain and/or swelling
- swollen skin around the anus
Depending on the localization of the infection, women, men and children may experience inflamed rectum, urethra or eyelids. The symptoms of mouth and throat infections are rare although a person can suffer a sore throat. Eyes infected with chlamydia can be itchy, swelled, cause painful sensations or produce discharge similar to conjunctivitis. Infection in the rectum results in bleeding, chlamydia discharge and pain.
What To Think About
Some people who have chlamydia may also have gonorrhea. In that case, treatment includes antibiotics that kill both chlamydia and gonorrhea. For more information, see the topic Gonorrhea.
Reinfection can occur. Symptoms that continue after treatment are probably caused by another chlamydia infection rather than treatment failure. To prevent reinfection, sex partners need to be evaluated and treated.
Repeated chlamydia infections increase the risk for pelvic inflammatory disease . Even one infection can lead to PID without proper treatment. Make sure to take your antibiotics exactly as prescribed. Take the full course of medicine, even if you feel better in a couple of days.
Some doctors recommend retesting 3 to 12 months after treatment to reduce the risk of complications from reinfection.footnote 4
If you have chlamydia, your doctor will send a report to the state health department. Your personal information is kept confidential. The health department may contact you about telling your sex partner or partners that they may need treatment.
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Young Sexually Active Women Are Most Susceptible
Women between ages 15 and 24 are most likely to be newly infected with chlamydia, according to the CDC, but anyone who is sexually active male or female can be infected. Men who have oral or anal sex with men are also at risk, notes the CDC. The CDC recommends regular chlamydia screenings for people at an increased risk of contracting it.
You should be screened annually for chlamydia if you are:
- A sexually active woman under age 25
- A woman age 25 or older who has multiple sexual partners
- A woman whose sexual partner may have multiple sexual partners
- Pregnant and under age 25 or pregnant and age 25 or older with an increased risk
- A man who has sex with men
- At an increased risk for other health reasons
I would emphasize that young women should be screened if they engage in any sexual behavior that puts them at risk because often has no symptoms, and early treatment is important to avoid long-term damage and infertility, Dr. Schaffir says.
Screening for chlamydia is painless: It usually involves testing a urine sample or a specimen swabbed from the vagina or penis. Some lab tests for chlamydia can use specimens from the throat or rectum.
Std Pictures And Descriptions
Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are infections that are spread from one person to another during vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse.
Without treatment, STDs can lead to serious health problems. Lets take a look at the most common STDs and the symptoms that appear on both males and females.
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What Other Problems Can Chlamydia Cause
In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease . PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications.
Men often don’t have health problems from chlamydia. Sometimes it can infect the epididymis . This can cause pain, fever, and, rarely, infertility.
Both men and women can develop reactive arthritis because of a chlamydia infection. Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that happens as a “reaction” to an infection in the body.
Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. It may also make it more likely for your baby to be born too early.
Untreated chlamydia may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV/AIDS.
In Men Untreated Chlamydia Can Lead To:
- Epididymitis painful inflammation of the inner structures of the testicles, which may cause reduced fertility or sterility. A rare complication of Epididymitisis reactive arthritis, which causes pain in the inflamed joints that can be disabling
- Occasionally, Reiters syndrome
- Urethritis inflammation of the urethra with a yellow discharge appearing at the tip of the penis. Untreated urethritis results in narrowing of the urethra which leads to painful urinating and can cause kidney problems
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How Is Chlamydia Diagnosed
Your doctor will ask you questions about your past health and your sexual history, such as how many partners you have. You may also have a physical exam to look for signs of infection.
Several types of tests can be used to diagnose chlamydia. Most use a sample of urine or a swab from the cervix, vagina, or urethra.
Since chlamydia can cause serious problems but may not cause symptoms, it’s a good idea to get tested once a year if you are sexually active and in your mid-20s or younger. Local health departments and family planning clinics usually offer low-cost testing.
Symptoms Can Differ For Men And Women
By and large, most cases of chlamydia are asymptomatic they are picked up by screening, which is why it’s so important to have good screening programs in place, notes Dr. Stoner. Men or women who have chlamydia symptoms may experience painful urination.
Women may also have these symptoms:
- Smelly discharge from the cervix
- Pain during sex
And men may have these symptoms:
- Discharge from the penis
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Most Common Stds Pictures And Descriptions
Leah likes writing about health and science subjects. Through her writing she hopes to help people of all backgrounds have equal access to information and quality healthcare.
Dr. Katalin Karolyi
Dr. Katalin Karolyi
Katalin Karolyi, M.D. earned her medical degree at the University of Debrecen. After completing her residency program in pathology at the Kenezy Hospital, she obtained a postdoctoral position at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, Florida.
This article contains images of STD infected genitalia sourced from top medical sites. Not all STDs will present as displayed in each image. In order to have an STD diagnosed you must receive STD testing and consult with a doctor.
Chlamydia Is Common But Many People Dont Realize They Have It
About 1.7 million chlamydia infections were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017, but the real number is likely higher because chlamydia is considered an underreported infection.
“The number of reported cases is substantially lower than the true estimated incidence,” says Bradley Stoner, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and former president of the American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association.
The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System relies on state and local public health departments to collect and report data on chlamydia to the CDC. Those public health departments depend on individual physicians, hospitals, and laboratories to report cases of chlamydia to them. Accurate statistics require all parties to routinely comply with disease-reporting mandates.
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How To Control Chlamydia An Ecdc Guidance For Europe
They are young and mostly female: with more than 3.2 million cases between 2005 and 2014, chlamydia remains the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection across Europe. The updated ECDC guidance on chlamydia control in Europe makes the case for national chlamydia control strategies in the EU Member States and shows ways to develop, implement or improve national or local control activities.
Rates of chlamydia infection have increased 5% between 2010 and 2014. Young people are particularly affected by this STI with two thirds of the 396 000 reported cases in 2014 diagnosed among 15 to 24-year-olds. As chlamydia infection often shows no symptoms, the reported numbers underestimate the true picture. Across Europe, chlamydia is the only STI which is reported more frequently in women than men. This might be influenced by the fact that women are generally tested more often than men because of the greater risk of complications, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.
Chlamydia is straightforward to diagnose and can be effectively treated with antibiotics but it may also irreversibly damage a woman’s reproductive organs. There is no available vaccine and after treatment you can get re-infected if you do not take precautions, stresses ECDC Acting Director Andrea Ammon. The disease can be controlled through prevention and effective treatment of those infected and their partners.
Primary prevention at core of STI control
Read the full
S Of Genital Herpes Or Herpes Simplex 2 In Men And Women
Genital Herpes HSV2 is a disease visible on the genitals and can spread through sexual contacts . The virus infects mucoepithelial cells inside the neurons and can remain dormant for years until the next outbreak.
In Primary herpes case, the time from exposure to the time we begin seeing the painful ulcer is between 2 days to 12 days.
Research shows, that genital Herpes is more prevalent in Young Women and Men who has sex with men
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How Is Chlamydia Spread
You can get chlamydia by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia.
If your sex partner is male you can still get chlamydia even if he does not ejaculate .
If youve had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can still get infected again. This can happen if you have unprotected sex with someone who has chlamydia.
Multidrug Resistant And Heterotypic Resistant Chlamydia Trachomatis
In 1980, Mourad et al were the first to report the reduced sensitivity to erythromycin. Decreased sensitivity to tetracycline was first reported by Jones et al in 1997. They identified five isolates from cases of tubal infertility which had minimum inhibitory concentration to tetracycline of 4 to > 8 mg/l, compared with control MICs of 0.125 to 0.25 mg/l. The isolates were also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin and sulphonamide, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Tetracycline resistance was also reported from France in 1997. In 2000, Somani et al reported multidrug resistant isolates of C. trachomatis associated with treatment failure with azithromycin.
There are no data regarding management of clinically resistant C. trachomatis infection. In vitro data suggest that resistance to ofloxacin imparts resistance to other fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Although many of the newer quinolones, including trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin and tosufloxacin have equal or greater MICs for C. trachomatis, these need to be tested against an ofloxacin-resistant strain,. Perhaps a prolonged course of therapy with a standard agent such as doxycycline or azithromycin would be effective against resistant C. trachomatis disease, because such therapy has been efficacious against C. pneumoniae infection in cases of relapse.
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Sexually Transmitted Infections Found In Animals
One out of four humans will die due to a sexually transmitted disease. Its something that weve all been taught to protect ourselves from, even if everyone isnt as diligent as they should be.
However, while many sexually transmitted illnesses are commonly known to affect humans, we arent the only species on the planet that can contract them. From HIV to herpes to brucellosis, the animal kingdom has its own fair share of problems when it comes to sexually transmitted infections .