How Does Chlamydia Affect A Pregnant Woman And Her Baby
In pregnant women, untreated chlamydia has been associated with pre-term delivery,34 as well as ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia in the newborn. In published prospective studies, chlamydial conjunctivitis has been identified in 18-44% and chlamydial pneumonia in 3-16% of infants born to women with untreated chlamydial cervical infection at the time of delivery.9-12 Neonatal prophylaxis against gonococcal conjunctivitis routinely performed at birth does not effectively prevent chlamydial conjunctivitis.37-39
Screening and treatment of chlamydia in pregnant women is the best method for preventing neonatal chlamydial disease. All pregnant women should be screened for chlamydia at their first prenatal visit. Pregnant women under 25 and those at increased risk for chlamydia should be screened again in their third trimester. Pregnant women with chlamydial infection should be retested 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of recommended therapy.40
Chlamydia Symptoms In Women:
In certain situations, chlamydia can be even more serious for women. Symptoms are often mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. However, health complications for women who have untreated chlamydia can be quite serious, including infertility.
Here are the most common symptoms:
- A burning sensation while urinating
- An abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Itching or burning around the vagina
How Are Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Treated
Both chlamydia and gonorrhea can be treated with medication. The CDC recommends that chlamydia be treated with antibiotics, and that gonorrhea be treated with dual therapy. It is important that treatment directions be followed in order to ensure that treatment is successful.
Even with successful treatment, it is important to note that a person can be re-infected with either chlamydia or gonorrhea at any time. For this reason, it is important to continue testing as indicated and to encourage sexual partners to get tested and to seek treatment as necessary.
Read Also: Is Chlamydia Curable In Males
Urine Testing Vs Bacterial Culture
Urine testing is currently primarily used to detect bacterial STIs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea urine tests are widely available. Trichomoniasis urine tests are also available, but they are less common.
The gold standard for diagnosing bacterial STIs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, used to be a bacterial culture. That involved attempting to grow bacteria out of samples that were taken directly from the cervix or urethra.
These days, bacterial DNA testing is considered a better option. It works differently than a bacterial culture. Instead of trying to grow bacteria, these tests just look for bacterial DNA. This can be done using a process called ligase chain reaction or with other DNA amplification techniques.
These types of testing are sensitive to even very small amounts of bacterial DNA. Even better, they do not require a live bacterial sample. As such, they can be run on urine samplesnot just urethral or cervical swabs.
For most people, the thought of getting a gonorrhea urine test or chlamydia urine test is a lot less intimidating than the thought of needing a physical exam.
Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Cases In Arizona
According to the Arizona Department of Health Services, the number of chlamydia cases in Arizona increased by 7% from 2015 to 2016. Both men and women can be infected with chlamydia, but women are at a significantly higher risk of acquiring chlamydia than men. As of 2016, 690 out of every 100,000 women were infected with chlamydia while only 331 out of every 100,000 men were infected with the disease. Rates of gonorrhea increased by 25% from 2015 to 2016 in Arizona, according to the Arizona Department of Health Services. However, the overall number of gonorrhea cases in Arizona are much lower than the number of chlamydia cases. In 2016, 177 out of every 100,000 men were infected with gonorrhea while 126 out of every 100,000 women were infected with the disease.
Should I Get Tested For Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
Yes! You should get tested for STDs, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, before and after every sexual encounter with new partners. If youve been in a long-term, monogamous sexual relationship the same partner, you should still test for STDs once a year.
If youve recently tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhea, complete the treatment, then test again after 3 months to ensure the treatment was successful.
Additionally, it is possible to be re-infected with both diseases, so even if youve already been treated for chlamydia or gonorrhea, youre still susceptible to re-acquiring it. Thats why its so important to get retested after every sexual encounter with new partners.
Other Approaches To Prevention
The USPSTF has issued recommendations on screening for other STIs, including hepatitis B, genital herpes, HIV, and syphilis. The USPSTF has also issued recommendations on behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults who are at increased risk for STIs. These recommendations are available at .
Also Check: What Is The Best Antibiotic For Chlamydia
How Does A Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Test Work
Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea can be done at home or at a clinic. A sample of urine is typically sent to a laboratory, which checks the urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea DNA. If you are using the Everlywell at-home test, youâll receive secure, online results just a few days after the lab receives your sample.
Learn more:How to test for gonorrhea
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing
Several different tests are used to detect HIV, including lab testing, the rapid antibody screening test, the rapid antigen/antibody test and a self-test that uses oral fluid.
Lab testing requires blood to be drawn from your vein. Your blood is then analyzed in a lab to detect either the genetic material of the virus, or specific HIV antigens and antibodies.
It usually takes several days to receive the results from an HIV lab test.
If youre tested for HIV with a rapid antibody screening test, or with a rapid antigen/antibody test, your results will typically be ready in under 30 minutes.
If you test yourself for HIV using an oral fluid antibody self-test such as the OraQuickÂ® In-Home HIV Test, youll receive results within 20 minutes.
Right now, there are no tests that can accurately detect HIV immediately after infection. If youre worried that you may have been exposed to HIV, its important to seek medical help immediately and, if possible, use post-exposure prophylaxis .
In order to undergo testing for HIV, youll need to wait for the window period to pass.
The window period varies depending on the type of HIV test:
Also Check: Ways To Get Chlamydia Other Than Sexually
When Should I Get A Gonorrhea Test
Because many people who are infected with gonorrhea do not have any noticeable symptoms, a number of health organizations recommend regular gonorrhea screening for certain adolescents and adults between the ages of 15 and 65, including:
- Women under 25: All sexually active women younger than age 25 should get yearly screening for gonorrhea.
- Women 25 and older: Women 25 and older who have risk factors for gonorrhea infection should be screened yearly.
- Pregnant women: Because gonorrhea can be passed from mother to child during childbirth, all pregnant women under 25 should be tested. Pregnant women 25 and older should be screened if at an increased risk of gonorrhea infection.
- Men who have sex with men: Men who have sex with men should be screened annually for gonorrhea, or every 3 to 6 months if they are at an increased risk for contracting gonorrhea.
- People with HIV: People diagnosed with HIV should be screened for gonorrhea at least once per year.
Regular screening for gonorrhea in heterosexual men without symptoms is not generally recommended.
Risk factors that impact the frequency of gonorrhea screening include:
- A new sexual partner in the past 60 days
- Multiple sex partners
- Painful bowel movements
- Sore throat
After being treated for gonorrhea, its recommended to test for gonorrhea again three months after completing antibiotics.
Each Year There Are Approximately 15 Million Cases Of Chlamydia And 350000 Cases Of Gonorrhea Reported To The Centers For Disease Control And Prevention
However this may not accurately reflect the total number of infected individuals, as most people with these infections have no symptoms and go untested. These bacterial infections are spread through sexual intercourse . This test will not be able to tell you the specific site of the infection, but will detect the infection if present.
Pregnant women with an active gonorrhea or chlamydia infection at the time of vaginal delivery can spread the infection directly to their children during birth. All sexually active women under age 25 and women over age 25 with risk factors for contracting chlamydia or gonorrhea should get tested every year: risk factors include unprotected sex, new sexual partners, or multiple sexual partners. Men at risk for chlamydia or gonorrhea should get tested each year, and more often as needed: risk factors include having sex with a partner who has chlamydia or gonorrhea, men who have sex with men, unprotected sexual intercourse, and multiple sex partners.
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Seven Chlamydia In Home Test Options
Think seven at-home chlamydia test options is too much? We certainly dont think so! After all, chlamydia is the second most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. At myLAB Box, we recognize that everyone is different and all consumers have special interests and needs. Truthfully, thats why myLAB Box offers a variety of testing options.
What Do The Gonorrhea And Chlamydia Test Results Mean
A positive test result means that Chlamydia or Gonorrhea bacteria are present and you have an infection. Sometimes you may have both types of infection. If you have a positive result, your health care provider will prescribe treatment with antibiotics.
State laws often require that health care providers report the names of people who have these infections to the health department. This allows the state health department to monitor for outbreaks and for infections that are becoming resistant to the usual antibiotics.
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How Long Does It Take For Gonorrhea To Show Up
It is very common among young adults that are sexually active. This infection is caused by a bacterium that can affect the genitals, mouth or anus. Signs and symptoms are not common but, include painful urination, pus like discharges from the penis and pain/swelling in one testicle for men and, painful urination, intercourse as well as abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding for women.
Gonorrhea Incubation Period: the incubation period ranges from 1 to 14 days. Men who show symptoms, start noticing them two to five days post exposure. Women, on the other hand, develop them in the first 10 days following infection.
Gonorrhea Window Period: it is between 2 to 6 days.
How Is The Test Used
Chlamydia testing is used to screen for and diagnose sexually transmitted infections caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.
Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is often done at the same time since the infections caused by these two bacteria can have similar signs and symptoms. These bacteria may be acquired at the same time, and you may have infections with both. A definitive diagnosis is important since the two infections require different antibiotic treatment.
Repeat testing is recommended to ensure that treatment has been effective. This is done about three months after you have completed treatment.
Tests Not Recommended For Routine Use
Direct fluorescent antibody tests
This assay should not be used for routine testing of genital tract specimens. Rather, DFA tests are the only FDA-cleared tests for ocular C. trachomatis infections. Depending on the commercial product used, the antigen that is detected by the antibody in the C. trachomatis DFA procedure is either the MOMP or LPS molecule. Specimen material is obtained with a swab or endocervical brush, which is then rolled over the specimen well of a slide. After the slide has dried and the fixative applied, the slide can be stored or shipped at ambient temperature. The laboratory should process the slide < 7 days after the specimen has been obtained. Staining consists of flooding the smear with fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody that binds to C. trachomatis elementary bodies. Stained elementary bodies are then identified by fluorescence microscopy. Only C. trachomatis organisms will stain with the anti-MOMP antibodies used in commercial kits. The anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies will react with family-specific epitopes found within the LPS of Chlamydiaceae and might cross-react with LPS of other bacteria. The procedure requires an experienced microscopist and is labor-intensive and time-consuming. No DFA tests exist for the direct detection of N. gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens.
Nucleic acid hybridization/probe tests
Nucleic acid genetic transformation tests
Enzyme immunoassay tests
Detection Of Genitourinary And Extragenital C Trachomatis And N Gonorrhoeae Infections In Cases Of Sexual Assault
Detailed information about evaluation and treatment of suspected victims of sexual assault can be obtained from the 2010 STD treatment guidelines . General recommendations pertaining only to C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae testing are presented here. Examination of victims is required for two purposes: 1) to determine if an infection is present so that it can be successfully treated and 2) to acquire evidence for potential use in a legal investigation. Testing to satisfy the first purpose requires a method that is highly sensitive, whereas satisfying the second purpose requires a method that is highly specific. Although NAATs meet these criteria, acceptance of any test results is determined by local legal authorities. Local legal requirements and guidance also should be sought for maintaining and documenting a chain of custody for specimens and results that might be used in a legal investigation and for which test results are accepted as evidence.
Read Also: Things Not To Do When You Have Chlamydia
How Will I Get The Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Test Result
You will receive a notification email informing you that your results are available. This email will contain a link to the secure communications area where your results will be available. Please read the email for important information associated with the login process. Once you have successfully logged into the secure communication area, additional instructions will be available to guide you to the appropriate area to view, print and/or save your results.
How Can You Prevent Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
There are several strategies to help prevent sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. The following strategies, of which abstinence is considered the most reliable, are all recommended by the CDC:
- Reduce your number of sexual partners
- Mutual monogamy
- Use condoms
Preventing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases to others is also important. Knowing your status is an important step in stopping the spread of sexually transmitted diseases to others.
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How Do You Test For Gonorrhea And Chlamydia
HealthLabs.com uses the FDA-approved / cleared nucleic acid amplification test . This test is recommended as the most accurate test for detecting both chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterium that causes chlamydia. Our NAAT chlamydia test looks for the presence of the bacteria in your urine. If it is found, this means that you have an active chlamydia infection. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the bacterium that causes gonorrhea. Our NAAT gonorrhea test can detect the presence of this bacteria in your urine. If the bacteria is found, you have an active gonorrhea infection.
How Common Is Chlamydia
CDC estimates that there were four million chlamydial infections in 2018.3 Chlamydia is also the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States.4 However, a large number of cases are not reported because most people with chlamydia are asymptomatic and do not seek testing. Chlamydia is most common among young people. Two-thirds of new chlamydial infections occur among youth aged 15-24 years.3 It is estimated that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 years has chlamydia.5
Disparities persist among racial and ethnic minority groups. In 2019, reported chlamydia rates for African Americans/Blacks were nearly six times that of Whites.4 Chlamydia is also common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men . Among MSM screened for rectal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 3.0% to 10.5%.6,7 Among MSM screened for pharyngeal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranged from 0.5% to 2.3%.7.8
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Comparing Urine Sti Tests To Other Sti Tests
Some people still question whether urine testing is as effective at detecting bacterial STI like chlamydia and gonorrhea. These questions usually focus on the efficacy of the tests in women. Why?
The most common site of female infection is not on the pathway that urine travels out of the body. In contrast, urine passes through the most common site of infection , in men.
A 2015 review that examined 21 studies on the relative effectiveness of using different types of samples to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea found that:
- For chlamydia testing in women, the sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 99%, respectively, for urine samples compared to cervical samples.
- For chlamydia testing in men, the sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 99%. respectively, for urine samples compared to urethral samples.
- For gonorrhea testing in women, the sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 99%, respectively, for urine samples compared to cervical samples.
- For gonorrhea testing in men, the sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 99%, respectively, for urine samples compared to urethral samples.
By and large, these results are relatively consistent across studies. Interestingly, self-collected vaginal swabs were closer in effectiveness to cervical swabs than urine testing. For some women, those may be a more acceptable alternative to a pelvic exam if urine testing isn’t available.
Can I Take The Test At Home
Samples for gonorrhea NAAT testing can be collected at home, while other gonorrhea tests must be performed by a healthcare professional. At-home testing for gonorrhea involves collecting a urine sample and using a prepaid shipping label to mail it to a certified lab for testing.
If an at-home test comes back positive or if you have symptoms of gonorrhea, its important to talk with a doctor.
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