Indication: What Zithromax Is Used For
Zithromax is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria.
It is commonly used to treat Chlamydia. Zithromax is also used to prevent infections by a bacterium called Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex in some people.
Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why Zithromax has been prescribed for you. Your doctor may have prescribed it for another reason.
Zithromax is only available with a doctors prescription.
This medicine is not addictive.
This medicine is not expected to affect your ability to drive a car or operate machinery.
What Is Azithromycin And How Does It Work
Azithromycin is used to treat certain bacterial infections . It is a macrolide-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
This medication will not work for viral infections . Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.
Azithromycin is available under the following different brand names: Zithromax, and Zmax.
- Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Afipia felis, Arachnia propionica, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bordetella pertussis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia recurrentis, Klebsiella granulomatis, Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamydia pneumoniae , Chlamydia trachomatis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella spp, Mycobacterium simiae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus bovis , Streptococcus intermedius group , Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes , viridans streptococci
- First-line therapy: A felis, B henselae, B quintana, B pertussis, C jejuni, C pneumoniae , C trachomatis, H ducreyi, H influenzae, Legionella spp, M scrofulaceum, M simiae, M xenopi, N gonorrhoeae
- 500 mg/day orally for 3 days or 2 g orally once
Pediatric: Zmax: 2g orally once
- 10 mg/kg of oral suspension orally once daily for 3 days
Zithromax Effective For Travelers Diarrhea
Dr. Michael W. Dunne, director of clinical research for Pfizers anti-infective drugs, said the company had conducted studies comparing Zithromax to all or any drugs recommended by the C.D.C. panel and found that Zithromax was just as effective. The Pfizer internal document said the goal of the recorded advice was to counter recommendations of theContinue reading Zithromax Effective For Travelers Diarrhea
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Zithromax Effectiveness In Clinical Trials
In clinical trials, Zithromax was effective at fighting bacterial infection, including some antibiotic-resistant strains.
Studies conducted before approval of the drug measured its minimum inhibitory concentration in relation to a host of bacteria. MIC is the lowest concentration of an antibiotic that will inhibit the growth of bacteria and thereby kill them. A lower MIC means a more effective antibiotic.
In a 1991 study in the European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, researchers found Zithromax had a markedly low MIC against some bacteria compared with three other types of antibiotics, meaning it was highly effective for example, resolving 92 percent of gonorrhea infections treated.
Is Azithromycin Better Than Doxycycline At Curing Chlamydia
STD guidelines still favor azithromycin over doxycycline for the treatment of chlamydia. This is because of the following reasons:
- Cure rates of azithromycin and doxycycline are similar, 97% and 98-100% respectively, according to a meta-analysis of 12 trials.
- Azithromycin is given as a single dose, doxycycline needs to be given for seven days, either as a once-daily or twice-daily dose.
- The dose of azithromycin can be easily supervised if need be it is much harder to supervise seven days of once daily or twice daily doxycycline treatment
- People are more likely to take a single dose of azithromycin than finish a seven-day course of doxycycline.
Recently, some reports have suggested that doxycycline may be more effective than azithromycin, particularly when medication adherence can be assured. There is also some concern that azithromycin may not be as effective for anogenital chlamydial infections.
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Use In Pregnancy And Breastfeeding
Doxycycline is labelled as Pregnancy Category D in the FDA classification. So, doxycycline should be avoided during pregnancy because of severe adverse effects including teratogenicity, permanent yellowish-brown teeth discoloration after in utero exposure and rare fatal hepatotoxicity, and is therefore contraindicated past the fifth week of pregnancy. However, despite this categorization as a class D agent, doxycycline was FDA approved for use in pregnant women following exposure to biothreat agents, including Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis.
Recently, a systematic review of doxycycline in pregnant women revealed a safety profile significantly different from that of tetracycline with no correlation between the use of doxycycline and teratogenic effects during pregnancy or dental staining in children.
Although doxycycline produces measurable milk levels, it is not contraindicated during the nursing period.
How Do I Know If I Have Chlamydia
If you suspect you have chlamydia, your doctor may want to test cervical or penile discharge or urine using one of several available methods.
In most cases of chlamydia, the cure rate is 95%. However, because many women don’t know they have the disease until it has caused serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually active women under age 25 and others at higher risk should be tested for chlamydia once a year during their annual pelvic exam even if they dont have symptoms.
Pregnant women should also be tested as part of their routine lab work.
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Warnings For Other Groups
For pregnant women:
Azithromycin hasnt been evaluated in clinical studies of pregnant women. However, when used during pregnancy, the drug hasnt been found to increase the risk of pregnancy loss, birth defects, or other problems.
One study in pregnant rats did show increased risk of fetal death and delays in development after birth. However, most animal studies of the drug havent shown any increased risk of birth defects. And keep in mind that animal studies dont always predict what will happen in humans.
Before taking azithromycin, talk with your doctor if youre pregnant or plan to become pregnant. This drug should be used only if its clearly needed.
For women who are breastfeeding:
Azithromycin does pass into the breast milk of lactating women. Because of this, the drug may cause side effects in a child whos breastfed. These side effects may include diarrhea, vomiting, and rash.
Before taking azithromycin, talk with your doctor about whether its safe for you to breastfeed.
All possible dosages and drug forms may not be included here. Your dosage, drug form, and how often you take the drug will depend on:
- your age
- how severe your condition is
- other medical conditions you have
- how you react to the first dose
Why Is Treating Chlamydia Important
Those who do not seek treatment for chlamydia also risk passing the infection on to their sexual partners.
Treatment is also necessary because the immune system is not capable of fighting off the infection on its own. The only way to effectively rid the body of chlamydia is to treat it with antibiotics.
How And When To Take It
Azithromycin is usually taken once a day, unless you’re having it by injection. Try to take your medicine at the same time each day.
The usual dose is 500mg a day for 3 to 10 days depending on the infection being treated.
For some infections, you’ll be given a one-off higher dose of 1g or 2g.
The dose may be lower for children or if you have liver or kidney problems.
Azithromycin is sometimes prescribed long term to prevent chest infections if you keep getting them. In this case, it’s usually taken 3 times a week, often on a Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
How Is Chlamydia Diagnosed
Chlamydia can be diagnosed with either a first-catch urine test or a swab collected from the endocervix or vagina in women, or a first-catch urine test or a swab collected from the urethra in men.
Self-collected vaginal swab testing is available and many women find this screening strategy highly acceptable.
- Geisler WM, Uniyal A, Lee JY, et al. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 373:2512-2521. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1502599
- Workowski, K, Bolan G. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
- WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis. Geneva: World Health Organization 2016. 4, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS. Available from:
- Chlamydia Treatment and Care. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/treatment.htm
- Chlamydia Treatment Information Sheet. Wisconsin Department of Health Services.
Zithromax 250 Mg And 500 Mg Tablets And Oral Suspension
He told Healthline that in high-risk cases, such as with older adults, it could be smarter to start treatment with two antibiotics, rather than using a wait-and-see approach to treating pneumonia. Elderly patients tend to be more vulnerable and really should be treated more carefully, potentially with an increase of aggressive antibiotic therapy, he said.Continue reading Zithromax 250 Mg And 500 Mg Tablets And Oral Suspension
Use Of Azithromycin During Pregnancy
Azithromycin has not been evaluated in clinical trials in pregnant women. However, when used during pregnancy, the drug increases the risk of miscarriage, congenital disabilities, or other problems.
Studies in pregnant mice have shown an increased risk of miscarriage and postpartum development. However, most animal studies on the drug found no serious congenital disabilities. Bear in mind that animal studies cannot always predict what approach it will take towards the human.
If you are a mother-to-be or planning for a baby then before consuming this tablet you should consult your doctor first. You should only consider this medication if it is essential. Azithromycin is not usually recommended during pregnancy or lactation.
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Azithromycin For Sinus Infection
People who are suffered from sinus most probably ask the doctor to prescribe an antibiotic. Acute sinus infections mostly last for about three-four weeks. Azithromycin is the most common antibiotic prescribed to treat sinus infections. There is evidence that Azithromycin works at its best level and quickly cure sinus infections. But it is not necessary that antibiotics can help sinus patients every time. Judicious usage of antibiotics is essential to cure sinus infections.
What Antibiotics Are Used To Treat Chlamydia
Currently, NICE recommends Azithromycin or Doxycycline as the first-line drugs for uncomplicated genital chlamydia infections. According to their guidelines, Doxycycline is preferred in instances where the patient shows signs of a rectal infection. Azithromycin is used in other cases.
- Doxycycline is given as a 100mg tablet, taken twice daily for one week.
- Azithromycin is issued for use over three days. A 1g dose on the first day, followed by two 500mg doses.
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Doxycycline Resistance And M Genitalium
Information on antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium is scarce because of the limited number of strains isolated from clinical samples. Studies reporting MICs of doxycycline usually found low MIC values, i.e. 5 strains with MICs ranging from0.008 to 0.031 mg/L and 14 strains with MICs ranging from 0.06 to 0.12 mg/L . However, an in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing study conducted using both broth dilution and quantitative PCR showed an MIC range of 0.0631 mg/L indicating that the strains displayed reduced susceptibility to doxycycline but that these isolates remained rare. Finally, a recent larger study showed that 2 isolates out of 103 displayed MIC> 8 mg/L while for other isolates, MICs ranged from< 0.125 to 2 mg/L. However, doxycycline MICs did not correlate with treatment outcomes in this study. As far as molecular detection of mutations mediating resistance is concerned, macrolides and fluoroquinolones were mainly studied and to our knowledge, tetracycline resistance-associated mutations have not so far been identified in M. genitalium. Altogether, MICs mostly indicated susceptibility of M. genitalium to doxycycline and the rare isolates with reduced susceptibility cannot explain the poor efficacy of doxycycline in the treatment of M. genitalium infections., Considering the emergence of MDR M. genitalium strains, it thus appears important to elucidate reasons other than poor patient compliancefor the poor efficacy of doxycycline.
Is Treatment Always Necessary For Chlamydia
Yes, treatment is necessary for chlamydia, particularly in women of childbearing age, because it reduces the risk of chlamydia-associated ectopic pregnancy, fertility problems, and the transmission of chlamydia to neonates during birth. In women, of all ages, chlamydia treatment reduces the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease.
In men, treatment for chlamydia stops them from infecting or reinfecting sexual partners with the bacteria.
Treat any person testing positive for chlamydia with a recommended course of antibiotics promptly. Delays in treatment have been associated with complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease.
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Infant Pneumonia Caused By C Trachomatis
Chlamydial pneumonia among infants typically occurs at age 13 months and is a subacute pneumonia. Characteristic signs of chlamydial pneumonia among infants include a repetitive staccato cough with tachypnea and hyperinflation and bilateral diffuse infiltrates on a chest radiograph. In addition, peripheral eosinophilia occurs frequently. Because clinical presentations differ, all infants aged 13 months suspected of having pneumonia, especially those whose mothers have a history of, are at risk for , or suspected of having a chlamydial infection should be tested for C. trachomatis and treated if infected.
Specimens for chlamydial testing should be collected from the nasopharynx. Tissue culture is the definitive standard diagnostic test for chlamydial pneumonia. Nonculture tests can be used. DFA is the only nonculture FDA-cleared test for detecting C. trachomatis from nasopharyngeal specimens however, DFA of nasopharyngeal specimens has a lower sensitivity and specificity than culture. NAATs are not cleared by FDA for detecting chlamydia from nasopharyngeal specimens, and clinical laboratories should verify the procedure according to CLIA regulations . Tracheal aspirates and lung biopsy specimens, if collected, should be tested for C. trachomatis.
Erythromycin base or ethylsuccinate 50 mg/kg body weight/day orally divided into 4 doses daily for 14 days
Azithromycin suspension 20 mg/kg body weight/day orally, 1 dose daily for 3 days
Cdc Updates Guidelines On Treatment Of Sexually Transmitted Infections
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has updated its guidelines for the treatment of people who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted infection .
Key changes were made to treatment recommendations for Neisseriagonorrhoeae, Chlamydiatrachomatis, Trichomonasvaginalis, pelvic inflammatory disease and
Along with the AAP Red Book, the guidelines are a source of clinical guidance for the diagnosis, management and treatment of STIs based on current evidence.
Adolescent screening recommendations
Reported rates of STI, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, continue to rise across the U.S. Prevalence rates of certain STIs are highest among adolescents and young adults .
The CDC continues to recommend routine laboratory screening for common STIs for all sexually active AYA.
It also suggests providers consider opt-out screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea for AYA females regardless of reported sexual activity as part of a clinical visit. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that opt-out chlamydia screening among AYA females could increase screening significantly, save costs and identify STIs among youths who do not disclose their sexual behavior.
Chlamydia continues to be the most commonly reported notifiable infectious disease in the U.S., and prevalence rates are highest among sexually active females ages 15-24.
If chlamydial co-infection cannot be excluded, doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for seven days should be added.
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How To Cope With Side Effects
What to do about:
- feeling sick – stick to simple meals and do not eat rich or spicy food while you’re taking this medicine.
- diarrhoea or being sick – drink lots of fluids such as water or squash to avoid dehydration. Take small, frquent sips if you’re being sick. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having strong-smelling pee. Do not take any other medicines to treat diarrhoea or vomiting without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
- losing your appetite – eat when you would usually expect to be hungry. If it helps, eat smaller meals more often than usual. Snack when you’re hungry. Have nutritious snacks that are high in calories and protein, such as dried fruit and nuts.
- headaches – rest and drink plenty of water. Ask your pharmacist to recommend a painkiller if you need one. Talk to your doctor if the headaches last longer than a week or are severe.
- feeling dizzy or tired – if you feel dizzy when you stand up, try getting up very slowly or stay sitting down until you feel better. If you begin to feel dizzy, lie down so you don’t faint, then sit until you feel better. Do not drive or use tools or machines if you feel dizzy or tired. Do not drink alcohol as it may make you feel worse.
- changes to your sense of taste – talk with your doctor if this is bothering you.
What Happens If Chlamydia Is Left Untreated
If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to more serious health problems.
In people assigned female at birth, untreated chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease , a condition which can scar the fallopian tubes and lead to infertility.
Chlamydia can also be passed on to babies during birth if the parent has the infection while pregnant.
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Usual Adult Dose For Gonococcal Infection
Gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis:Immediate-release: 2 g orally onceUse: Treatment of mild to moderate urethritis and cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeaeUS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommendations:Immediate-release:-Recommended regimen: 1 g orally once as a single dose plus ceftriaxone-Alternative regimen: 1 g orally once as a single dose plus cefixime