Gonorrhea Chlamydia And Syphilis
What are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis?Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases . These three STDs can cause serious, long-term problems if they are not treated, especially for teenagers and young women.What causes gonorrhea and chlamydia?Both gonorrhea and chlamydia are caused by bacteria. The bacteria are passed from one person to another through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Gonorrhea and chlamydia often occur together.Where do these infections occur?Gonorrhea and chlamydia infections can occur in the mouth, reproductive organs, urethra, and rectum. In women, the most common place is the cervix .At what age do these infections most commonly occur?Although gonorrhea and chlamydia can occur at any age, women 25 years and younger are at greater risk of both infections.What are the symptoms of gonorrhea and chlamydia?Women with gonorrhea or chlamydia often have no symptoms. When symptoms from either infection do occur, they may show up 2 days to 3 weeks after infection. They may be very mild and can be mistaken for a urinary tract or vaginal infection. The most common symptoms in women include the following:
- A yellow vaginal discharge
- Vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods
- Rectal bleeding, discharge, or pain
Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases . These three STDs can cause serious, long-term problems if they are not treated, especially for teenagers and young women.
When Should I Get Chlamydia Testing
As most people infected with chlamydia do not experience symptoms, doctors rely on screening to detect most cases of chlamydia. Screening guidelines vary based on many factors, including a persons anatomy, health, and sexual practices. Regular screening for chlamydia is recommended for several groups:
Certain factors increase the risk of contracting chlamydia and may affect how often a person should be screened. Risk factors include having:
- Sex with a new partner
- More than one sexual partner or a partner who has sex with mutiple people
- A sex partner diagnosed with an STD
Testing for chlamydia is more frequently conducted in asymptomatic people in settings where infection rates are high, which often includes correctional facilities, adolescent health clinics, the military, and sexual health clinics.
Diagnostic chlamydia testing is recommended for anyone with signs or symptoms of this infection. When symptoms do occur, they may not appear until a few weeks after exposure. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia can vary based on the site of infection but may include:
- Burning during urination
- Abnormal discharge from the vagina, penis, or rectum
- Vaginal bleeding after sex or pain during intercourse
- Pain, tenderness, or swelling in the testicles or scrotum
- Rectal pain
Im Pregnant How Does Chlamydia Affect My Baby
If you are pregnant and have chlamydia, you can pass the infection to your baby during delivery. This could cause an eye infection or pneumonia in your newborn. Having chlamydia may also make it more likely to deliver your baby too early.
If you are pregnant, you should get tested for chlamydia at your first prenatal visit. Testing and treatment are the best ways to prevent health problems.
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What Is Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
Both gonorrhea and chlamydia are common sexually transmitted infections occurring in men and women. So how do you get gonorrhea and chlamydia? They are transmitted through vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone whoâs infected.
Both infections are caused by bacteriaâChlamydia trachomatis in cases of chlamydia and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in cases of gonorrhea.
Although gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection, chlamydia has a higher prevalenceâwith over 1.7 million cases of chlamydia reported in the United States in 2017.
Risk factors for getting gonorrhea and chlamydia are often identical and include:
- Having multiple sex partners. You’re more likely to be exposed to someone with a sexually transmitted infection if you have multiple sex partners.
- Unprotected sex. Condom usage during sex substantially reduces the risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection, so your risk is higher if you have unprotected sex.
- Having other STIs: If you already have a sexually transmitted infection, you can be at a greater risk of getting another STI. For example, if you contract chlamydia, you could be more likely to contract gonorrhea.
Can I Take The Test At Home
Tests are available to detect chlamydia at home. Most at-home chlamydia tests are self-collection kits, which allow you to obtain a swab or sample of urine at home and return it to a laboratory by mail. If an at-home chlamydia test returns positive results, a doctor may suggest confirmation testing with a laboratory-based method.
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Complications Of Oral Chlamydia
Chlamydia of the throat does not lead to complications in that area. The biggest concern with oral chlamydia is that people without symptoms are more likely to continue having sex and spreading the infection to other people.
Long-standing chlamydia infection most commonly leads to pelvic inflammatory disease , an infection and inflammation of the uterus and fallopian tubes. People with PID often have difficulties getting pregnant or are at risk of ectopic pregnancy.
Chlamydia infection can also cause an inflammatory reaction throughout the body that causes joint pain or conjunctivitis, an inflammation or infection in the eye.
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Copyright 2021 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. All rights reserved. Read copyright and permissions information.
This information is designed as an educational aid for the public. It offers current information and opinions related to women’s health. It is not intended as a statement of the standard of care. It does not explain all of the proper treatments or methods of care. It is not a substitute for the advice of a physician. Read ACOGs complete disclaimer.
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A Word From Same Day Std Testing
Any STD can cause significant physical harm. From infertility to organ failure, STDs present a major health risk to sexually active individuals. Thats why its so important for everyone to receive comprehensive STD tests on a regular basis. When you visit one of our facilities, youll not only receive empathetic care and privacy, youll also gain access to the best tests on the market. Call one of our professionals to schedule an appointment here at , or to get tested right away, visit a facility near you!
Can You Develop Stds
Some people think that having an STD like chlamydia can lead to the internal development of another STD like gonorrhea. Thats simply not the case, though. STDs dont evolve or transform into different kinds of infection over time. However, having one STD can increase your odds of contracting more STDs in the future.
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How Do I Know If I Have An Sti
Dont wait until you show symptoms, as you might never get any. If youve had unprotected sex then its important to get tested to make sure that you dont have an STI. Especially because infections like chlamydia and gonorrhea can be symptomless, you run the risk of infecting your partner, or any future partner.
You can visit a sexual health clinic to get tested where they will ask you questions about your sexual history before examining you. The tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea involve giving a urine sample and possibly a swab test from the vagina. If you prefer, you can order a test kit online to do at home.
If you test positive for one, or think that you have symptoms of one, then its advisable to get tested for all common STIs. It is possible to have multiple sexually transmitted infections.
How Is Chlamydia Spread
You can get chlamydia by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia.
If your sex partner is male you can still get chlamydia even if he does not ejaculate .
If youve had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can still get infected again. This can happen if you have unprotected sex with someone who has chlamydia.
Also Check: When To Get Tested For Chlamydia After Treatment
Why Take The Chlamydia Gonorrhea And Trichomoniasis Test
The chlamydia test can identify bacteria causing this infection. It is very essential to screen, and diagnose chlamydia in order to prevent its spread and possible long-term complications. The Centers for Disease Control And Prevention state that, every year, 2.8 million Americans get infected with chlamydia. It also states that women are more prone to be re-infected, if their partner is not getting tested and treated properly. This makes chlamydia a widespread sexually transmitted disease. People at risk of getting chlamydia need to be tested, regularly. These include young people who are sexually active, gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men.
The Gonorrhea test is essential in screening, diagnosing and evaluating the treatment plan of a gonorrhea infection. It is essential in preventing its complications, which could be very drastic, ranging from septicemia and joints infection, to a disseminated gonococcal infection that could infect our heart, brain and spinal cord. The Centers for Disease Control And Prevention states that, every year, 820,000 individuals get infected with gonorrhea. But, only half of these cases are reported to the CDC. This bacterial infection is mostly common among young adults who are sexually active. It is also common among African Americans.
Each Year There Are Approximately 15 Million Cases Of Chlamydia And 350000 Cases Of Gonorrhea Reported To The Centers For Disease Control And Prevention
However this may not accurately reflect the total number of infected individuals, as most people with these infections have no symptoms and go untested. These bacterial infections are spread through sexual intercourse . This test will not be able to tell you the specific site of the infection, but will detect the infection if present.
Pregnant women with an active gonorrhea or chlamydia infection at the time of vaginal delivery can spread the infection directly to their children during birth. All sexually active women under age 25 and women over age 25 with risk factors for contracting chlamydia or gonorrhea should get tested every year: risk factors include unprotected sex, new sexual partners, or multiple sexual partners. Men at risk for chlamydia or gonorrhea should get tested each year, and more often as needed: risk factors include having sex with a partner who has chlamydia or gonorrhea, men who have sex with men, unprotected sexual intercourse, and multiple sex partners.
Read Also: How Do You Test For Oral Chlamydia
How Is Chlamydia Diagnosed
There are a number of diagnostic tests for chlamydia, including nucleic acid amplification tests , cell culture, and others. NAATs are the most sensitive tests, and can be performed on easily obtainable specimens such as vaginal swabs or urine.43
Vaginal swabs, either patient- or clinician-collected, are the optimal specimen to screen for genital chlamydia using NAATs in women urine is the specimen of choice for men, and is an effective alternative specimen type for women.43 Self-collected vaginal swab specimens perform at least as well as other approved specimens using NAATs.44 In addition, patients may prefer self-collected vaginal swabs or urine-based screening to the more invasive endocervical or urethral swab specimens.45 Adolescent girls may be particularly good candidates for self-collected vaginal swab- or urine-based screening because pelvic exams are not indicated if they are asymptomatic.
NAATs have demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity compared with culture for the detection of C. trachomatis at rectal and oropharyngeal sites.40 Certain NAAT test platforms have been cleared by FDA for these non-genital sites and data indicate NAAT performance on self-collected rectal swabs is comparable to clinician-collected rectal swabs. 40
How Does A Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Test Work
Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea can be done at home or at a clinic. A sample of urine is typically sent to a laboratory, which checks the urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea DNA. If you are using the Everlywell at-home test, youâll receive secure, online results just a few days after the lab receives your sample.
Learn more:How to test for gonorrhea
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How Do You Prevent Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
The same steps will reduce your risk of catching chlamydia and gonorrhea. Using condoms every time you have vaginal or anal sex will prevent you from catching one of these diseases from an infected partner. Using dental dams for oral sex will also reduce your risks.
Women should also avoid odor-reduction products including vaginal douches. These products kill off the vaginas natural bacteria which can actually fight off infections like chlamydia and gonorrhea.
What Are The Signs Of Chlamydia Or Gonorrhea
Many people who have chlamydia or gonorrhea dont have any signs or symptoms. When there are symptoms, chlamydia and gonorrhea cause very similar things.
Women with symptoms may have:
- Abnormal discharge from the vagina
- Burning when they urinate
- Bleeding between periods
Men with symptoms may have:
- Abnormal discharge from the penis
- Burning when they urinate
- Painful or swollen testicles
Also Check: How Do Men Test For Chlamydia
Can Chlamydia Be Cured
Yes, chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. It is important that you take all of the medication your doctor prescribes to cure your infection. When taken properly it will stop the infection and could decrease your chances of having complications later on. You should not share medication for chlamydia with anyone.
Repeat infection with chlamydia is common. You should be tested again about three months after you are treated, even if your sex partner was treated.
Who Needs To Get Tested For Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
The recommendations for getting tested for chlamydia and for gonorrhea are the same.
- If you’re age 24 or younger and having sex, get tested once every year
- If you’re age 25 or older, get tested if you have more than 1 sex partner, a new sex partner, or a sex partner with an STD
- Talk with a doctor to find out if you need to get tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or other STDs
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Response To Public Comment
A draft version of this recommendation statement was posted for public comment on the USPSTF website from March 2 through March 29, 2021. Several comments expressed concern that the USPSTF found insufficient evidence to screen men and did not provide separate recommendations for specific high-risk populations. The USPSTF did not identify enough evidence to support that screening men for chlamydia and gonorrhea improves health outcomes by reducing infection complications or disease transmission or acquisition, including HIV. In the Research Needs and Gaps section, the USPSTF calls for more research on screening in men and other groups such as men who have sex with men the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning community and racial and ethnic minorities. The USPSTF also clarified to whom the recommendation applies regarding sex and gender in the Practice Considerations section. Some comments requested that universal, rather than risk-based, screening be recommended for women 25 years or older. Based on available disease prevalence data and accuracy of risk assessment tools, the USPSTF found that younger age was a strong predictor of disease risk, which was clarified in the Practice Considerations section. Comments also asked for clarification on screening intervals. Given the lack of available evidence on optimal screening frequency, the USPSTF provides a reasonable approach for rescreening in the Practice Considerations section.
What Is The Difference Between Gonorrhea And Chlamydia
Both STIs are caused by bacteria and can cause similar symptoms. Gonorrhea is caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria and Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacteria which causes chlamydia. Chlamydia is more common and is less likely to produce symptoms, especially in women.
Lower abdominal or pelvic pain
Pain or bleeding during sex
Bleeding between periods
Burning or itching of the urethra
Pain in the testicles
70% of women and 50% of men wont experience any symptoms.
An unusual discharge which might be yellow or green
Pain or a burning sensation while you pee
Bleeding between periods or after sex
Lower abdominal pain
Tender or sore testicles
10% of men and 50% of women dont show any symptoms of the infection.
For both chlamydia and gonorrhea symptoms will usually arise within 2 weeks of having transmitted the infection. It is possible for symptoms not to show up for months though. If youre at all worried that you might have an STI then always get tested.
Who Releases New Treatment Guidelines For Chlamydia Gonorrhea And Syphilis
New guidelines for the treatment of three common sexually transmitted infections have been issued by the World Health Organization in response to the growing threat of antibiotic resistance. Chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis are all caused by bacteria and are generally curable with antibiotics. However, these STIs often go undiagnosed and are becoming more difficult to treat, with some antibiotics now failing as a result of misuse and overuse. It is estimated that, each year, 131 million people are infected with chlamydia, 78 million with gonorrhea, and 5.6 million with syphilis.
Resistance of these STIs to the effect of antibiotics has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options. Of the three STIs, gonorrhoea has developed the strongest resistance to antibiotics. Strains of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea that do not respond to any available antibiotics have already been detected. Antibiotic resistance in chlamydia and syphilis, though less common, also exists, making prevention and prompt treatment critical.
The new recommendations are based on the latest available evidence on the most effective treatments for these three sexually transmitted infections.
WHO guidelines for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrheae
WHO guidelines for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis
When used correctly and consistently, condoms are one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs.