Chlamydia And Gonorrhea Responsible For 10% Of New Hiv Infections Among Msm According To New Study
A new study published January 19 in the journal Sexually Transmitted Diseases estimates that 10% of new HIV cases among men who have sex with men are caused by existing gonorrhea or chlamydia infections. While the number of new HIV cases among MSM has remained fairly stable, sexually transmitted infections are at an all-time high and threaten to make HIV prevention harder.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the two most common reportable STIs in the United States, and the rates are rising among men. In 2017, there were 363.1 cases of chlamydia per 100,000 men. This represents a 39% increase from just four years earlier in 2013. The gonorrhea rate among men rose even more during that same time period, from 108.7 to 202.5 cases per 100,000 men. Data suggest that the incidence of these and other STIs is higher in MSM than in men who have sex only with women.
HIV diagnoses have fallen among injection drug users and heterosexuals since 2012. They have also fallen among white gay and bisexual men but have remained stable among African-American gay and bisexual men, while increasing among Latino gay and bisexual men. Overall, the HIV rates remain unchanged among MSM.
For this study, researchers used agent-based modeling that took all of these factors into account. The behavioral variables in the model, such as specific sexual behaviors and frequency of condom use, were based on data collected for a study of sexual networks in Atlanta, Georgia.
Is Bv Similar To Chlamydia
BV, unlike chlamydia, is not considered a sexually transmitted disease. It affects only females and can be induced by sex but not transmitted by a sex partner. Sexual activity can change the pH of the vagina and induce BV symptoms. Other common things that can lead to BV are low immunity and pregnancy.
How Do People Get Genital Herpes
People can get infected with genital herpes when:
- They have vaginal or anal sex with someone with genital herpes .
- They receive oral sex from a partner who has oral herpes .
- They touch a herpes sore and then touch their own genitals.
- Their genitals touch the skin in the genital area of someone who is infected .
Genital herpes can spread even if there are no sores because the virus is still in the body. The virus sometimes sheds in the skin near the genitals. When the virus is shedding, it can infect another person.
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Chlamydia And Gonorrhea: How To Know The Difference
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are arguably some of the most common, and well known, sexually transmitted infections worldwide. As a matter of fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention refer to both of these infections as two nationally notifiable STIs .
Occasionally mistaken for one another, chlamydia and gonorrhea have similar symptoms and signs, and can even cause some similar side effects when left untreated. In saying that, both chlamydia and gonorrhea are individual infections, with a variety of distinct differences â each of which is worth knowing more about.
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How Is Chlamydia Treated
Chlamydia can be easily treated with a short course of antibiotics. You may be able to take all the antibiotics in one day, or over a week, depending on the type of treatment you are prescribed.
Its important to not have sex until you and your current sexual partner/s have finished treatment. If youve had the one-day course of treatment, you should avoid having sex for seven days afterwards. Ask your healthcare professional when its safe to have sex again.
Remember that if youve been treated for chlamydia you are not immune and you can get infected again.
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We Know That Men Who Have Sex With Men In Illinois Are At Higher Risk For Hiv What About Women Who Have Sex With Women
It is not a personâs gender, sexual orientation, race or class that puts them at risk for HIV. People are at risk for HIV when they practice risky behaviors. Women who identify as lesbian or gay can be at risk for HIV by practicing any of the behaviors that place women at risk. Lesbian women have become infected with HIV by using injection drugs or having unprotected sex with male or female partners who are already infected with HIV. Women who have sex with other women should follow guidelines in this fact sheet to protect themselves, and can call the Illinois AIDS/HIV/STD Hotline at 800-243-AIDS for specific information.
How Do Sexually Transmitted Infections Affect People With Hiv
Sexually transmitted infections are very common among people who are sexually active. Anyone who has sex is at risk, including people with HIV. STIs are also commonly referred to as sexually transmitted diseases .
STIs are infections that are spread from person to person through sexual activity, including anal, vaginal, or oral sex. They are caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses.
HIV is an STI. Other types of STIs include:
- ChlamydiaA common STI that can cause in infection in women and men. Chlamydia is easily treated and cured but can make it difficult to get pregnant if left untreated. Untreated chlamydia may increase a persons chances of getting or transmitting HIV.
- Genital herpesA common STI, but most people do not know they have it. There is no cure, but there are treatments for the symptoms.
- GonorrheaA common, treatable STI that can cause infection in the genitals, rectum, mouth, and throat. Untreated gonorrhea can increase a persons chance of getting or transmitting HIV.
- Human papillomavirus The most common STI in the United States, but most people with HPV have no symptoms. HPV can cause some health effects, such as cervical cancer and anal cancer, and there is a higher prevalence of both among people with HIV. HPV is preventable by a vaccine .
- SyphilisAn STI that can have very serious problems when left untreated. It is simple to cure with the right treatment.
Learn more about these and other STIs.
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Who To Test For Chlamydia
Anyone with the following genital symptoms should not have sex until they see a healthcare provider:
- A discharge
- A burning sensation when peeing
- Unusual sores, or a rash
Anyone having oral, anal, or vaginal sex with a partner recently diagnosed with an STD should see a healthcare provider.
Because chlamydia usually has no symptoms, screening is necessary to identify most infections. Screening programs can reduce rates of adverse sequelae in women.31,41 CDC recommends yearly chlamydia screening of all sexually active women younger than 25. CDC also recommends screening for older women with risk factors, such as new or multiple partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection.40 Screen and treat those who are pregnant as noted in How does chlamydia affect a pregnant person and their baby? Women who are sexually active should discuss their risk factors with a healthcare provider to determine if more frequent screening is necessary.
Routine screening is not necessary for men. However, consider screening sexually active young men in clinical settings with a high prevalence of chlamydia. This can include adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, and STD clinics. Consider this when resources permit and do not hinder screening efforts in women.40
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Genital Herpes
Most people with genital herpes dont have any symptoms. They may not even know they are infected.
Some people with genital herpes can have outbreaks of sores in the genital and anal area. The sores heal within a few weeks. Outbreaks can be brought on by stress, illness, being overly tired, or being in sunlight. Girls can have outbreaks when they get their periods.
The first outbreak often is the most severe. Outbreaks usually become less severe over time.
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What Std Can Lead To Hiv
HIV spreads more easily when it comes to STDs. A person with HIV who has urethritis or a genital ulcer is more likely to shed HIV. HIV patients who get another STD, such as gonorrhea or syphilis, may have been having sex without using condoms, according to the CDC. In this case, their partners might have been infected with HIV.
How To Recognize Genital Herpes
Genital herpes is a very common sexually transmitted disease . It is so common that many people, when they find any skin lesion around the genital areas, are likely to think that it is herpes. They are not entirely wrong to think that way. Genital herpes is the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide.1 And the condition is usually associated with a stigma that can itself cause anxiety and even depression2 and might influence the affected personâs decision to disclose the infection to others or seek care.3
A genital sore is not great news regardless of what is causing it. However, many other conditions causing genital sores have a prognosis different from that of herpes. Some can be worse, but others, unlike herpes,4 can be completely cured. Thatâs why weâre beginning this article with an explanation of how to recognize genital herpes and differentiate it from other genital skin lesions.
A sleeping virus
The herpes virus is known for staying âasleepâ in the body for a long time without showing symptoms. This feature is called latency: once the virus infects a person, after an initial phase that does not necessarily manifest with symptoms, it remains hidden in the body for many years, reactivating every now and then.4 Its reactivation is usually triggered by weakness of the immune system, such as in times of sustained stress, accumulated fatigue, heavy physical activity, or fever, but may not have any apparent cause.5, 6
Herpes skin lesions
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How Can A Person Reduce The Risk Of Getting An Std
Sexual abstinence is the only way to eliminate any chance of getting an STD. But if you are sexually active, you can take the following steps to lower your risk for STDs, including HIV.
Choose less risky sexual behaviors.
- Reduce the number of people you have sex with.
- Do not drink alcohol or use drugs before and during sex.
Use condoms correctly every time you have sex.
- Visit this website from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to learn how to use condoms correctly.
Ulcerating Stds And Hiv: A Cause For Concern
Susan Blank, MD, MPHDirector, Bureau of Sexually Transmitted Disease ControlNew York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene New York, New YorkSummary by Tim HornEdited by James F. Braun, DO, and Jeffrey S. Roth, MD, PhD
Reprinted from The PRN Notebook® | June 2005 | Dr. James F. Braun, Editor-in-Chief, Tim Horn, Executive Editor. | Published in New York City by the Physicians Research Network, Inc.® | John Graham Brown, Executive Director | All rights reserved. ©June 2005
Sexually transmitted infections are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States today. More than 20 STIs have now been identified, and they affect more than 13 million men and women in this country each year.
The potential for HIV transmission is enhanced by the presence of STIs, and ulcerative STIsby virtue of interrupting the bodys most important defense are of particular concern. Overall, genital ulcer infections appear to increase HIV risk by a factor of 2.7 . The presence of an ulcerative STD in an HIV-infected individual also appears to increase the likelihood that he or she will transmit HIV to an uninfected sexual partner. Another concern is that HIV infection is associated with non-classical presentations of genital ulcer disease, rendering such infections more difficult to diagnose and treat.
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How Is Genital Herpes Spread
You can get genital herpes by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the disease.
If you do not have herpes, you can get infected if you come into contact with the herpes virus in:
- A herpes sore
- Saliva or genital secretions
- Skin in the oral area if your partner has an oral herpes infection, or skin in the genital area if your partner has a genital herpes infection.
You can get herpes from a sex partner who does not have a visible sore or who may not know he or she is infected. It is also possible to get genital herpes if you receive oral sex from a sex partner who has oral herpes.
You will not get herpes from toilet seats, bedding, or swimming pools, or from touching objects around you such as silverware, soap, or towels. If you have additional questions about how herpes is spread, consider discussing your concerns with a healthcare provider.
Is That Spot A Pimple Or A Cold Sore
Acne is the most common skin condition in teens and young adults in the United States, and its increasingly common among women in their thirties, forties, and fifties. It can cause a range of blemishes variously known as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules , cysts, and nodules, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
Acne is sometimes confused with oral herpes because of the way a breakout looks. Although oral herpes sores usually appear as small, clear blisters filled with fluid, in some instances they can look more like the reddened skin and pimples associated with acne. However, herpes is typically associated with more itchiness and pain than acne.
And whereas oral herpes sores are usually found on the mouth, lips, chin, cheeks, or nose, acne can break out on any area of the face as well as on the neck, chest, back, and shoulders.
Acne is caused by excess skin oil, clogged pores, and bacteria not the herpes virus. Hormones, stress, certain medicines, and sometimes diet can trigger or worsen acne outbreaks. While a single pimple may clear up in a few days, a larger acne outbreak may last for weeks to months.
Acne is not contagious, and topical and oral medication can help heal pimples, stop new pimples from forming, and prevent scars. To avoid scarring, dont squeeze or pop pimples.
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How Is It Diagnosed
Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and your sexual history. You may also have a physical exam to look for signs of infection.
Several types of tests can diagnose chlamydia. Most tests use a sample of urine or a swab from the cervix, vagina, or rectum.
Chlamydia can cause serious problems but may not cause symptoms. That’s why it’s a good idea to get tested once a year if you are at higher risk for getting chlamydia. Talk to your doctor about what testing is right for you.
What Are The Symptoms Of Stds
Symptoms of STDs may be different depending on the STD, and not everyone will experience the same STD symptoms. Examples of possible STD symptoms include painful urination , unusual discharge from the vagina or penis, and fever.
STDs may not always cause symptoms. Even if a person has no symptoms from an STD, it is still possible to pass the STD on to other people.
Talk to your health care provider about getting tested for STDs and ask your sex partner to do the same.
To find STD information and testing sites near you, call CDC-INFO at 1-800-232-4636 or visit CDCs GetTested webpage.
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How Is Reactive Arthritis Treated
Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may also include:
- Antibiotics to treat the infection
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines to reduce inflammation
- Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
- Immunosuppressive medicines such as methotrexate to control inflammation
- Strong biological immunosuppressants given as a shot
- Rest to ease pain and inflammation
- Exercise to strengthen muscles and improve joint function
What Are The Long
If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to other, sometimes serious, health problems.
In women, untreated chlamydia cause pelvic inflammatory disease . PID can cause pelvic pain, infertility , and ectopic pregnancy which can be life-threatening. PID can be treated with antibiotics.
In men, untreated chlamydia can cause swelling in the epididymis and the testicles. Rarely, it can cause infertility in men.
Chlamydia can also cause reactive arthritis in both women and men inflammation of the joints, and in some people, the urethra and the eyes .
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How Common Is Chlamydia
CDC estimates that there were four million chlamydial infections in 2018.3 Chlamydia is also the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States.4 It is difficult to account for many cases of chlamydia. Most people with the infection have no symptoms and do not seek testing. Chlamydia is most common among young people. Two-thirds of new chlamydial infections occur among youth aged 15-24 years.3 Estimates show that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 years has chlamydia.5
Disparities persist among racial and ethnic minority groups. In 2020, chlamydia rates for African Americans/Blacks were six times that of Whites.4 Chlamydia is also common among MSM. Among MSM screened for rectal chlamydial infection, positivity ranges from 3.0% to 10.5%.6,7 Among MSM screened for pharyngeal chlamydial infection, positivity has ranges from 0.5% to 2.3%.7.8
Should I Talk To A Doctor About It
Now that you have a broad idea of how to differentiate a genital herpes ulcer from other commonly encountered conditions, you should consult your doctor when you suspect genital herpes for the first time. The first episode of herpes can have more noticeable symptoms than recurrences later will and it will be less difficult to ensure that the prognosis is benign and rule out more harmful conditions.
Herpes is still a condition often associated with anxiety, fear, and shame. Your healthcare provider can talk to you about your feelings in that regard and give you support and guidance.
With any genital condition, it is important to have the correct diagnosis made by your doctor, who will use laboratory tests for confirmation to establish a proper management plan.
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