Specimen Collection And Handling
1. Patient should not have urinated for at least 2 hours priorto collection. Collect 10-50mL of first portion of random urineinto a sterile plastic container.
2. Transfer 3-4 mL of urine with pipet into the tube provided inthe cobas PCR Urine Sample Packet. Thefluid level must fall between the 2 black lines on the urinetransport tube.
3. Transport and store urine refrigerated.
NOTE: if cobas PCR Urine Sample Packet is not available transporturine in sterile container refrigerated and lab staff will aliquotinto cobas yellow top tube.
Are Test Results Accurate
Although chlamydia testing is an important method of finding and treating this common STD, test results could be impacted by the following:
- The use of antibiotics within several days before testing
- Urinating within one hour of sample collection
- Vaginal douching within 24 hours of testing
- Improper sample collection
- Contamination of rectal samples with fecal matter
How Much Does The Test Cost
The cost of chlamydia testing varies based on many factors. Chlamydia testing may be paid for by health insurance when ordered by a doctor. Because health plans vary, its important for patients to discuss the cost of testing, including any copays or deductibles, with their health plan.
For patients without health insurance coverage, the cost of testing may include the cost of the office visit and sample collection as well as technician fees. Testing may also be available for free or at low cost through community-based organizations and local health departments.
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Can I Take The Test At Home
Tests are available to detect chlamydia at home. Most at-home chlamydia tests are self-collection kits, which allow you to obtain a swab or sample of urine at home and return it to a laboratory by mail. If an at-home chlamydia test returns positive results, a doctor may suggest confirmation testing with a laboratory-based method.
It Is Easy To Get Tested For Chlamydia
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection that can affect both men and women. While both genders can be affected, the specific effects and method of diagnosis for the bacterial infection differs between male patients and female patients. We looked at the methods used to assist in the diagnosis of chlamydia among men in this post, as well as some particular factors that are unique to a male patient with this condition.
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Gc And Ct Amplified Nucleic Acid Detection
- GC and Chlam Nucleic Acid Detection
- Lab Code
- GC and Chlam Nucleic Acid Detection
This testing is not intended for the evaluation of suspected sexual abuse or for other medico-legal indications. The performance of this test has NOT been evaluated in patients less than 14 years of age or in pregnant women.
NOTE: A specimen type MUST be provided – correct performance and interpretation of this test is limited to the specimen types and collection methods described in Collection and Handling.
Additional Specimen Collection Information
InterferingSubstances: Interference may be observed in the presence of blood, mucin,bilirubin, or Vagisil feminine powder with urine specimens.
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During And After The Test
When you have a urine STD test, it is usually during a regular appointment. You will be asked to pee into a sample collection cup or tube. That tube or cup will be given to one of the medical staff.
Your urine sample will then be sent out to a lab or tested at the clinic. You can leave as soon as you are done giving the sample or when your appointment is finished.
How Do They Test For Chlamydia In Men
Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial infections that are spread through sexual intercourse not only in the United States but in several other areas of the world too. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 1.7 million cases of this sexually transmitted infection were reported in 2018. This data accounts for the United States alone. The World Health Organization estimates that about 2.7% of men around the world have been infected with Chlamydia between 2009 and 2016.
Due to the fact that chlamydia is a condition that affects male and female patients in unique ways, it is important to consider the differences in testing for these conditions too. In this post, we will consider some unique ways that chlamydia tends to affect men and take a look at what tests are performed to identify the presence of this bacterial infection in a male patient.
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The Above Policy Is Based On The Following References:
Urine Testing For Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Several sexually transmitted diseases can be detected using urine testing, which is becoming more and more available. Urine chlamydia tests and gonorrhea tests are a lot more pleasant than having to have your cervix or urethra swabbed and are quickly becoming standard practice.
It may be more difficult to find urine testing for other STDs, such as trichomoniasis or human papillomavirus , however.
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How To Get Tested
Chlamydia testing is usually ordered by a doctor. In people without symptoms, a doctor can evaluate their risk and suggest an appropriate screening schedule. If a patient has symptoms of this infection, a doctor will order testing to diagnose or rule out chlamydia.
Testing for chlamydia can be conducted at a hospital, doctors office, health clinic, or community health program.
When Should I Get Chlamydia Testing
As most people infected with chlamydia do not experience symptoms, doctors rely on screening to detect most cases of chlamydia. Screening guidelines vary based on many factors, including a persons anatomy, health, and sexual practices. Regular screening for chlamydia is recommended for several groups:
Certain factors increase the risk of contracting chlamydia and may affect how often a person should be screened. Risk factors include having:
- Sex with a new partner
- More than one sexual partner or a partner who has sex with mutiple people
- A sex partner diagnosed with an STD
Testing for chlamydia is more frequently conducted in asymptomatic people in settings where infection rates are high, which often includes correctional facilities, adolescent health clinics, the military, and sexual health clinics.
Diagnostic chlamydia testing is recommended for anyone with signs or symptoms of this infection. When symptoms do occur, they may not appear until a few weeks after exposure. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia can vary based on the site of infection but may include:
- Burning during urination
- Abnormal discharge from the vagina, penis, or rectum
- Vaginal bleeding after sex or pain during intercourse
- Pain, tenderness, or swelling in the testicles or scrotum
- Rectal pain
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Questions For Your Doctor About Test Results
It can be helpful to bring questions to your doctor to learn more about your chlamydia test results. Helpful questions may include:
- What is my chlamydia test result?
- Did my test check for any other STDs?
- Do I need any treatment based on my results?
- How can I talk to my sexual partners about chlamydia?
- When should I be tested for STDs and how often?
Diagnostic Tests For Chlamydia In Male Patients
The process of diagnosing chlamydia in men works slightly different from how the procedure works in female patients. There are certain laboratory tests that a doctor will need to perform on a male patient to determine if they have been infected with chlamydia. Additionally, the doctor will also need to rule out the presence of other sexually transmitted infections. This is critical due to the fact that some of the other STIs that can affect a man may have similar symptoms as chlamydia.
The first test performed on men who are suspected of having been infected with the chlamydia bacterial infection is a urine sample test. The doctor will ask the male patient to provide them with a urine sample. The sample will then be sent toward a laboratory.
A scientist at the laboratory facility will analyze the urine sample that was sent to them. This will help them determine if the organism that causes chlamydia is present in the urine of the patient. This may provide an indication of chlamydia urethritis, which means the urethra of the patient has been infected with the bacterial infection.
If the patient experiences discharge from the tip of their penis, then a swab might also be conducted. This test is called a urethral discharge culture. A technician or a doctor will be able to perform the swab itself.
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Urine Testing Vs Bacterial Culture
Urine testing is currently primarily used to detect bacterial STDs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea urine tests are widely available. Trichomoniasis urine tests are also available, but they are less common.
The gold standard for diagnosing bacterial STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, used to be bacterial culture. That involved attempting to grow bacteria out of samples that were taken directly from the cervix or urethra.
These days, bacterial DNA testing is considered a better option. It works differently than bacterial culture. Instead of trying to grow bacteria, these tests just look for bacterial DNA. This can be done using a process called ligase chain reaction or with other DNA amplification techniques.
These types of testing are sensitive to even very small amounts of bacterial DNA. Even better, they do not require a live bacterial sample. As such, they can be run on urine samplesnot just urethral or cervical swabs.
For most people, the thought of a getting gonorrhea urine test or chlamydia urine test is a lot less intimidating than the thought of needing a physical exam.
Purpose Of Urine Testing For Stds
It used to be that STD testing, particularly for bacterial STDs, was very uncomfortable.
Men who thought they might have a bacterial STD like chlamydia or gonorrhea got tested by having a swab inserted into their urethra. Women had to undergo a pelvic exam, during which a cervical swab would be taken and tested for bacteria.
The fact that STD testing was uncomfortable and invasive made it less likely that people would undergo regular STD screening.
That probably contributed to what is sometimes known as the hidden epidemic of asymptomatic STDs. Because many STDs have no symptoms, the only way to detect them is through testing. When people aren’t tested regularly, they can spread STDs to their partners without even knowing it.
Urine testing makes it easier for people to undergo STD testing as part of their regular medical care. Note, however, that STD testing is still not a standard part of most annual exams.
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Comparing Urine Std Tests To Other Std Tests
Some people still question whether urine testing is as effective at detecting bacterial STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. These questions usually focus on the efficacy of the tests in women. Why?
The most common site of female infection is not on the pathway that urine travels out of the body. In contrast, urine passes through the most common site of infection , in men.
A 2015 review that examined 21 studies on the relative effectiveness of using different types of samples to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea found that:
- For chlamydia testing in women, the sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 99% for urine samples compared to cervical samples.
- For chlamydia testing in men, the sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 99% for urine samples compared to urethral samples.
- For gonorrhea testing in women, the sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 99% for urine samples compared to cervical samples.
- For gonorrhea testing in men, the sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 99% for urine samples compared to urethral samples.
By and large, these results are relatively consistent across studies. Interestingly, self-collected vaginal swabs were closer in effectiveness to cervical swabs than urine testing. For some women, those may be a more acceptable alternative to a pelvic exam if urine testing isn’t available.
Complications Of Chlamydia In Male Patients
Chlamydia is an infection that is far more prevalent among women, particularly during young adulthood, compared to the prevalence of the condition in men. Still, men do need to understand that the condition can affect them and will often not yield any symptoms. This, however, does not mean the bacterial infection poses no harm.
In cases where symptoms do develop in a male patient, the individual may experience the following signs of chlamydia:
- There may be a discharge from the mans penis
- The testicles may become painful
- There may be pain during urination
- The lower abdominal might also develop pain conditions
Since chlamydia is a bacterial infection in nature, men do need to understand that there are certain complications that can develop. These complications can sometimes be serious and require medical attention.
Urethritis is a common complication of chlamydia in men. The condition causes a bacterial infection to develop in the urethra. This is a tube that runs throughout the patients penis it is used to expel both urine and semen from the body.
Urethritis causes irritation in the tip of the patients penis and can make the inside of the penis feel itchy. There may also be a burning or stinging sensation within the penis this is the urethra showing signs of the infection. A discharge can also occur from the penis.
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Limits Of Urine Tests For Gonorrhea And Chlamydia
In 2018, 1.8 million cases of chlamydia were reported to the CDC in addition to 583,405 cases of gonorrhea. These numbers show an increment of 19% and 63% since 2014 for the two diseases respectively.
Most infections with gonorrhea and chlamydia are asymptomatic. The fact that many people have no symptoms means that the only way to detect and treat these infections is through screening.
In men, these diseases most commonly infect the urethra, and in women the cervix. However, it is possible to get both of these diseases in the throat, from oral sex. Anal sex can also lead to rectal chlamydia and rectal gonorrhea infections.
Neither rectal nor oral/throat infections will be detected by urine testing. It is therefore important to let your healthcare provider know if you have unprotected oral or anal sex. Testing should be done separately for those sites.
Currently, it is recommended that men who have sex with men undergo urine, throat, and anal screening once a year. Other people who regularly have unprotected oral or anal sex should consider a similar screening regimen. People who only engage in vaginal intercourse can get by with urine testing alone for gonorrhea and chlamydia.
Chlamydia / N Gonorrhoeae Rna Tma
Includes: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Methodology: Dual Kinetic Assay Target Capture Transcription-Mediated Amplification
This test was performed using the APTIMA® COMBO2 Assay .
Clinical Significance:C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease , epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.
Alternative Name: CT/NG APTIMA®, CT/GC APTIMA®, Hologic, CT/GC TMA, CT/NG TMA
Additional Preferred Specimens Collection for Test Code 11363: 1 ml liquid cytology collected throughThinprep® Broomor Brush/Spatula0.5 ml of Surepath® preservative fluid collected using Broom or Brush/Spatula Vaginal swabs in the APTIMA® Combo 2 Assay Vaginal Swab Collection Kit
Note: Results from the APTIMA® Combo 2 Assay should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical data available to the clinician.
Supply: A01 – APTIMA Urine Collection
Transport temperature: Room temperature
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