Causative Agents And Pathogenesis
C. trachomatis belonging to family Chlamydiaceae, a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria is the causative agent of trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis and urogenital infections.C. trachomatis has a single chromosome of ~1 Mbp that codes for 875 genes and multiple copies of endogenous plasmids functioning as virulence factors.C. trachomatis is biphasic, consists of metabolically active, larger reticulate bodies and smaller resistant and metabolically inert elementary bodies which functions as the infective form. The organism completes its life cycle in conjunctival epithelial cells within 4872 h with the release of 200 infective EB. The infected host cells are characterized by the presence of a chlamydial inclusion in the perinuclear region.
The infection evokes an intense mixed inflammatory response in the conjunctiva initiated by the cytokines and interferon released by the infected cells. Initially, the neutrophils infiltrate the conjunctiva followed by lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, and eosinophils. This diffuse infiltration is accompanied by the presence of intermittent follicles . Innate proinflammatory immune response by the infected epithelial cells or T-cell response to repeated chlamydial infections leads to trachomatous scarring , in which loose Type I stromal collagen of conjunctiva is replaced by compact Type V collagen. Eventually, goblet cell numbers reduce and epithelial cells are thinned out.
What Increases Your Risk
Risk factors for getting chlamydia include:
- Having unprotected sex .
- Having more than one sex partner.
- Having a high-risk partner or partners. This includes people who have more than one sex partner or sex partners who have chlamydia.
- Starting sexual activity before age 18.
Any child with chlamydia needs to be seen by a doctor to determine the cause and to assess for possible sexual abuse. For more information, see the topic Child Abuse and Neglect.
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Home Remedies For Chlamydia Symptoms
You may still experience painful or uncomfortable symptoms while youre taking chlamydia antibiotics.
Here are some home remedies for reducing your pain and other symptoms while youre waiting for the antibiotics to work:
- pain medications, such as ibuprofen to reduce pain
- cold pack to help limit swelling and inflammation
- goldenseal to reduce inflammation and potentially make symptoms less severe
- echinacea to bolster your immune system against the infection and reduce your symptoms
- turmeric containing an ingredient called curcumin to reduce inflammation and make symptoms less severe
No studies support the effectiveness of these supplements specifically for chlamydia, so take them with caution.
And theres no substitute for antibiotics when treating chlamydia. Only try these remedies if youre already taking antibiotics or if you plan to go to the doctor.
How To Tell Someone That They Have Chlamydia
It is not easy to tell if you are infected with chlamydia since symptoms are not always apparent. But when they do occur, they are usually noticeable within one to three weeks of contact and can include the following: Chlamydia symptoms in women. Abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor. Bleeding between periods.
How Does Chlamydia Affect A Pregnant Woman And Her Baby
In pregnant women, untreated chlamydia has been associated with pre-term delivery,34 as well as ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia in the newborn. In published prospective studies, chlamydial conjunctivitis has been identified in 18-44% and chlamydial pneumonia in 3-16% of infants born to women with untreated chlamydial cervical infection at the time of delivery.9-12 Neonatal prophylaxis against gonococcal conjunctivitis routinely performed at birth does not effectively prevent chlamydial conjunctivitis.37-39
Screening and treatment of chlamydia in pregnant women is the best method for preventing neonatal chlamydial disease. All pregnant women should be screened for chlamydia at their first prenatal visit. Pregnant women under 25 and those at increased risk for chlamydia should be screened again in their third trimester. Pregnant women with chlamydial infection should be retested 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of recommended therapy.40
- testicular pain and/or swelling
Depending on the localization of the infection, women, men and children may experience inflamed rectum, urethra or eyelids. The symptoms of mouth and throat infections are rare although a person can suffer a sore throat. Eyes infected with chlamydia can be itchy, swelled, cause painful sensations or produce discharge similar to conjunctivitis. Infection in the rectum results in bleeding, chlamydia discharge and pain.
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How Long Does It Take For Std Symptoms To Show Up
The time from infection until symptoms manifest if they appear at all varies widely, and depends on the specific pathogen and the individual. All too often, symptoms do not appear at all, or they go unnoticed. Despite this, an STD should never be ignored. Left untreated, many STDs can progress and cause permanent, irreversible harm.Note that an infected person remains capable of transmitting infection to other people, regardless of any symptoms. Depending on the specific pathogen symptoms of STD may appear within four to five days or four to five weeks. Some infections might yield noticeable symptoms even months after the initial infection.
Male Complications Of Untreated Chlamydia
These are just some of the most common complications of untreated chlamydia, which is why its important to get medical attention right away. Most people who get treatment quickly have no long-term medical problems.
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How Can I Take Care Of Myself
Follow the full course of treatment your healthcare provider prescribes. Ask your healthcare provider:
- How and when you will hear your test results
- How long it will take to recover
- What activities you should avoid and when you can return to your normal activities
- How to take care of yourself at home
- What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if you have them
Make sure you know when you should come back for a checkup.
What Are The Long
If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to other, sometimes serious, health problems.
In women, untreated chlamydia cause pelvic inflammatory disease . PID can cause pelvic pain, infertility , and ectopic pregnancy which can be life-threatening. PID can be treated with antibiotics.
In men, untreated chlamydia can cause swelling in the epididymis and the testicles. Rarely, it can cause infertility in men.
Chlamydia can also cause reactive arthritis in both women and men inflammation of the joints, and in some people, the urethra and the eyes .
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Signs And Symptoms Of Chlamydia
Chlamydia is known as one of the silent diseases which can produce no symptoms for a long period of time. Approximately 7095 percent of women and 50 percent of men with chlamydia do not observe chlamydia symptoms at all. The symptoms can also be mild and almost unnoticeable.
Another reason why symptoms are not the best way to determine the infection is that it is often confused with gonorrhea as the symptoms are very much alike. Asymptomatic nature of chlamydia makes it difficult to estimate how long a person remains infectious and this period is commonly believed to last until full recovery.
Chlamydia symptoms show up between 1 and 3 weeks after the contraction.
Other Symptoms Of Chlamydia
When it comes to STDs, they are pure villains attacking silently without any noise upfront. Chlamydia can take anywhere between days to several weeks for the initial symptoms to appear. This makes it difficult to diagnose the disease in the first place as the symptoms themselves play silent. When the symptoms occur, the following can be experienced.
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Here Are The Most Typical Signs For Men:
- Pain when urinating
- White, cloudy, or clear discharge
- Swollen and painful testicles
To get on-time treatment, its important to recognize the symptoms. Thats why we have decided to list both the signs for men and women. But, do have in mind that most of the signs dont actually mean you have chlamydia.
In fact, they can also be caused by other infections completely unrelated to chlamydia. Nevertheless, you must get tested if you do recognize the signs so you can avoid any unwanted health complications.
When Can I Have Sex Again
If you were diagnosed with chlamydia, wait to have sex again until you have finished your treatment.
For some antibiotics, such as doxycycline, this means may need to wait 1 week to have sex, or until you have completed your prescribed course of treatment.
If you were prescribed a single dose of medication, like azithromycin, wait 7 days after taking the medication before having sex.
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Can You Prevent Chlamydia
You can lower your risk of getting chlamydia and other STIs by:
- not having sex with someone with chlamydia, even with a condom, until theyve finished treatment and 1 week has passed since their last dose of antibiotics
- regularly getting tested for STIs, especially if you are under 30 and sexually active
Remember that most people with chlamydia dont show any symptoms and dont know they have it, so feeling ‘well’ does not mean that you or your partner are not infected. If in doubt, get tested.
If you have chlamydia, you can help reduce the spread by letting your recent sexual partners know so they can get tested and treated.
Male Issues Of Neglected Chlamydia
Guy can likewise experience problems when chlamydia is left unattended. The epididymis the tube that holds the testicles in place might end up being inflamed, creating discomfort. This is referred to as epididymitis.
The infection can likewise infect the prostate gland, causing a high temperature, excruciating sexual intercourse, and also discomfort in the lower back. Another possible issue is male chlamydial urethritis.
These are simply a few of one of the most common complications of without treatment chlamydia, which is why it is essential to obtain clinical focus right now. The majority of people that get treatment swiftly have no lasting medical issues. How Long Before Chlamydia Symptoms Show
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Hi there, Im Melissa and welcome to Genier. Im not ashamed to admit that Ive dealt with an STD before and recovered. It was not a pleasant experience but Im glad I got myself tested. If theres one message that you can take away from my site is get tested today! Stay safe.
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What Antibiotics Do You Get For Chlamydia
Chlamydia is one of the most common STDs. It can be treated easily if caught early. Some of the most recommended antibiotics used to treat chlamydia are azithromycin and doxycycline. Azithromycin is typically given as 2 tablets one time while doxycycline is given as 2 capsules a day for 7 days. These antibiotics are most effective if both partners have received treatment and have taken their prescription as directed.
What Happens If Chlamydia Is Not Treated
Untreated chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Women with PID may not realize they have it, but left untreated it can cause pain, infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
Pregnant women with untreated chlamydia can pass it to their babies during childbirth. It can cause eye infections and pneumonia in newborns, and also increase the risk of delivering your baby too early.
In men, chlamydia can spread to the epididymis , and can cause chronic joint pain and infertility for some.
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Causes And Risk Factors
Chlamydia is an STI caused by a specific strain of bacteria known as Chlamydia trachomatis.
Chlamydia is more common in women than in men. In fact, its estimated that the overall rate of infection is for women than men in the United States.
Some of the other risk factors for infection include:
- not using barrier methods like condoms consistently with new sexual partners
- having a sexual partner who is having sex with other people
- having a history of chlamydia or other STIs
How Do You Treat A Chlamydia Eye Infection
To begin, your healthcare provider will likely enquire about any symptoms youve been experiencing, they will also examine your eyes and may take a swab sample from the eye area to check for bacteria.
Once diagnosed, chlamydial conjunctivitis is treated with antibiotic pills and/or specific eye drops to help fight against the chlamydia infection. Its important to remember to follow and complete the full course of antibiotics that your doctor has prescribed.
One of the best ways to reduce your risk of contracting an STD is with regular screening. This can be done by taking a trip to your doctors office or from the comfort of your own home with an at-home lab test.
LetsGetChecked offers a range of at-home STI tests which check for some of the most common bacterial and viral infections with online results in just 5 days. If you have any questions about your results, our dedicated nurses are available.
You should consider taking a test if:
- You become sexually active
- You have had unprotected sex
- Youre experiencing symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection
- Youre entering into a new sexual relationship
- You have received a notification from a previous partner that they are infected
Its important to note that while our tests can detect the presence of regular chlamydia through a urine sample, we do not currently offer to test for chlamydial conjunctivitis.
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Exact Answer: Up To 7 Days
However, it is not necessary that chlamydia would only be passed through when there is complete intercourse, it can also be passed if the genitals touch as it is a contagious disease.
Moreover, a person can also get infected with Chlamydia if they come in contact with infected semen, or get it in their eye. It cannot pass through general touches like hugging or shaking hands.
How Long Can You Have Chlamydia Without Knowing
Chlamydia is sometimes called a silent infection because the majority of people who have chlamydia regardless of gender never notice symptoms. People who do notice symptoms often dont recognize the signs that they have chlamydia until a few weeks after theyve been infected. Because chlamydia cases are often asymptomatic, its easy to spread chlamydia to someone else without realizing it. And its easy to miss out on receiving the treatment needed to prevent the serious complications that can result from chlamydia.
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What Can Happen If Chlamydia Isnt Treated
Untreated chlamydia can put your health at risk. Make an appointment with your provider immediately if you notice any symptoms of chlamydia, and get regular STI screenings to avoid complications later.
Complications of chlamydia for people with vaginas
Untreated chlamydia can cause:
- Pelvic inflammatory disease . PID is a serious condition that requires hospitalization. It can occur when an untreated STI, like chlamydia, damages your reproductive organs. PID can lead to infertility and chronic pelvic pain. It can also cause an ectopic pregnancy,which is life-threatening for the fetus and potentially deadly for the mother or gestational parent, too.
- Pregnancy complications. An untreated infection can lead to pre-term delivery. Also, if youre pregnant and have chlamydia, you can pass the infection on to your newborn. Babies born with chlamydia may have pneumonia or conjunctivitis that could lead to blindness if not treated.
Complications of chlamydia for people with penises
Untreated chlamydia can cause:
- Epididymitis. Infection can spread to the testicles and the tube that carries sperm to your testicles , causing symptoms like pain, swelling and tenderness in your testicles.
- Reduced fertility. Chlamydia can harm your sperm, negatively impacting your ability to conceive.
Complications of chlamydia that can affect all genders
Untreated chlamydia can:
Chlamydia Test For Women
To diagnose the infection, your doctor can use a few different chlamydia tests. Your doctor will likely ask you about your symptoms and why you think you have the infection. When this happens, its important to be as honest as possible.
Although many physicians do it, a chlamydia test is not automatically done at the time that a Pap test is done.
For this reason, its important for women, especially sexually active women aged 25 and under, to ask their health care provider whether theyre getting tested for chlamydia every year.
If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, youll have to ask for a screening.
Fortunately, chlamydia is easy to treat. If you suspect that you have it, youll need to:
- See your health care provider immediately before the infection does damage to your reproductive organs.
- Listen to your doctor and take all of your medicine. Even if your symptoms go away, you should finish your pills.
- Tell your sexual partner. They should know about the infection so that they too can be tested and treated.
- Avoid having sexual intercourse until you and your partner have been cured.
Since chlamydia is a bacteria, your doctor will prescribe you antibiotics.
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Can You Recognise Chlamydia From Pictures
Can you tell you if have chlamydia by comparing your visible symptoms with pictures?
No. You cannot tell if you have chlamydia just from the appearance. While you might notice some irritation of the genital area, swelling or discharge, these symptoms can also be caused by other infections. The only way to know that an infection is caused by chlamydia is to have a test.
Could a doctor tell you have chlamydia by looking at visible symptoms?
No. The only way to find out if you have chlamydia is to get tested. After a physical examination your GP may suspect you have chlamydia, but they wont be able to confirm a diagnosis without proper testing.
Could the visible symptoms of chlamydia be mistaken for something else?
Yes, but in many cases chlamydia is symptomless. Symptoms may not occur until 1-3 weeks after you have been infected. The symptoms can also be random and infrequent which can lead individuals to overlook that an infection may be causing the symptoms. It could be that your visible symptoms are a result of a different infection.