Occurrence In The United States
CDC estimates that approximately 1.6 million new gonococcal infections occurred in the United States in 2018, with a significant number of cases likely unreported. Per the CDC, gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported communicable disease. The national average in 2009 was 99.1 cases per 100,000 population, a 10.5% decrease from 2008, with considerable state-to-state variation. Rates of reported gonorrhea have increased 92.0% since the historic low in 2009. Men were apparently less likely than women to be tested for gonorrhea, 20.7% vs 50.9%, respectively. However, the infection rates between men and women were similar . Infection rates in men appear to be on the rise.
CDC report estimated the annual cost of gonorrhea and its complications to be $271 million.
In the United States, the number of gonococcal infections peaked in the 1970s, the era of the sexual revolution. With the onset of the HIV epidemic and the practicing of safe sex techniques, the incidence dramatically decreased from 468 cases per 100,000 population in 1975 to 100-150 cases per 100,000 population at the turn of the century. The rate of reported gonorrhea cases was at its lowest in 2009 but has been increasing overall since then. The increased numbers have been attributed to increased cases in males and persistently high rates in adolescents, young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups in defined geographic areas.
Nucleic Acid Amplification Test
The most common test for chlamydia, this is a simple, non-invasive test during which you collect a swab or urine sample yourself . A doctor can assist in taking a swab if you prefer.
The sample is then sent to be tested to see if there is genetic material that indicates the presence of chlamydia bacteria. Results come back quicker than the traditional culture test.
What Is A Chlamydia Infection
Chlamydia is among the most common STDs in the world. Many people have it its estimated that 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 has chlamydia.
The main cause for chlamydia is the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis that affects both men and women. The chlamydia infection is easily spread because it often has no symptoms and you can unknowingly pass it to your sexual partner.
Although you dont have outward symptoms in the early stages, its important to be careful. If you dont treat it on time, chlamydia can cause infertility or a risky pregnancy.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Chlamydia
Not all women and men will show symptoms of the disease. About 70 percent of women and 50 percent of men will not show symptoms of chlamydia. Therefore, if you have had unprotected sexual intercourse then its important to get tested. Early diagnosis and treatment are important in infected women to prevent complications.
Can Women Who Have Sex With Women Get Chlamydia
Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who has sex only with women. Chlamydia lives in the reproductive tract of an infected woman and can pass to a sex partner, whether male or female.
Talk to your partner about her sexual history before having sex, and ask your doctor or nurse for an STI test if you are at risk.
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Most Effective Home Based Remedies For Chlamydia
There are so many effective home based remedies that can be used for the complete treatment of Chlamydia
some of these are listed as below:
Risks Of Unprotected Sex
Patients should also be counseled about the additional risks of unprotected sex, including the acquisition of more serious or lifelong infections such as herpes, hepatitis B, and HIV, and, of course, about the risks of pregnancy. The emotional aspect of sexual relationships may also need to be addressed, especially in teenage girls. Teenagers are vulnerable in that they are sexually mature but not yet emotionally mature.
Patient education materials are also available at The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website and from many local public health departments.
Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015 Jun 5. 64 :1-137. . .
Dawe RS, Sweeney G, Munro CS. A vesico-pustular rash and arthralgia. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001 Jan. 26:113-4. .
Belding ME, Carbone J. Gonococcemia associated with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Nov-Dec. 13:1105-7. .
Walters DG, Goldstein RA. Adult respiratory distress syndrome and gonococcemia. Chest. 1980 Mar. 77:434-6. .
Thiéry G, Tankovic J, Brun-Buisson C, Blot F. Gonococcemia associated with fatal septic shock. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 1. 32:E92-3. .
St Cyr S, Barbee L, Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Pham C, Schlanger K, et al. Update to CDCs Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Dec 18. 69 :1911-1916. .
Cucurull E, Espinoza LR. Gonococcal arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1998 May. 24:305-22. .
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Top Things To Know About Chlamydia:
- Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, meaning that many people donât know they have it
- Chlamydia symptoms can include pus-like yellow discharge frequent or painful urination spotting between periods or after sex and/or rectal pain, bleeding, or discharge
- Untreated, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and/or infertility in women and people with female reproductive tracts
- Antibiotics are used to treat chlamydia infections
Preventing The Spread Of Infection
It is absolutely necessary to inform the partner if you get a positive test for Chlamydia. The sooner the partner is told the more effective and simple the treatment can be. Make sure your partner gets tested and receives the treatment as well and abstain from the intercourse until the treatment of both you and the partner is finished.
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When Can I Have Unprotected Sex After Chlamydia Treatment
Even if your chlamydia infection has been cured, its not recommended to practice unsafe sex. Having your STD treated doesnt guarantee that the infection will never come back. In fact, many people become infected with STDs multiple times because they continue to have unprotected sex with partners who have untreated STDs.
If you have a regular sexual partner, tell them about your infection so they can get treatment as well. Once youre sure you both got treated, you have to wait until the treatment has had time to be effective before you start having unprotected sex again.
Changes In The Vaginal Discharge
Women may face discharge when affected with Chlamydia and it happens due to the presence of infection at the uterine cervix. You will find this discharge either yellow or milky white in color. It also leads to burning sensation at the time of urination.
Some studies show that Chlamydia infection can also cause troubles to urethra while leading to urinary tract infection that causes pain at the time of urination. A person may also feel frequent urges for urination. When this chlamydia in women symptoms are ignored too long then the infection may get spread towards fallopian tubes via the cervix.
In this case, following additional symptoms are observed:
- Bleeding or pain while having sex.
- Spotting in between periods.
- Some kind of heaviness can be felt by the person around hips.
- It may also lead to lower back pain or abdominal pain.
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How Do You Know If You Have Chlamydia
The only way to know if you have chlamydia is by amedical exam. Most women with chlamydia do nothave any signs of infection. See your health careprovider to be tested for chlamydia each year if you:
- Are age 25 or younger and are sexually active
- Are older than 25 with new or multiple sex partners
- Do not practice safe sex
- Are having sex with someone who might be havingsex with others
- Are pregnant
Treatment Of Chlamydia Is There A Cure For Chlamydia
Chlamydia can be cured easily and effectively with simple antibiotics once it has been diagnosed. The treatment can consist of a single dose or last up to 2 weeks depending on the type of chlamydia. The infected person should not have penetrative sex until receiving a negative Chlamydia test at an after-treatment check-up. Both partners must be treated for chlamydia and undergo re-testing after 34 months.
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Painin The Stomach Or Pelvic Area
When chlamydia is left untreated, there is a 30% chance, and the infection will spread towards the pelvicorgans and cause pelvic inflammatory disease. This disease is often associatedwith sharp, dull, or cramping pelvic pain. The pain will usually start from thepelvic area and travel to the abdomen.
The image below is a clear representation of pelvic inflammation. In this particular example, chlamydia has infected the entire uterus and fallopian tubes.
The second picture is a typical example of a normal versus an inflamed fallopian tube. The left side of the image shows a healthy fallopian tube, while on the right side, inflammation has affected the area and caused the tube to double in size.
- A yellow vaginal discharge
- Vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods
- Rectal bleeding, discharge, or pain
Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases . These three STDs can cause serious, long-term problems if they are not treated, especially for teenagers and young women.
Female Chlamydia Symptoms To Watch For
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection that can affect both males and females.
Up to 95 percent of females with chlamydia dont experience any symptoms, according to the This is problematic because chlamydia can cause damage to your reproductive system if left untreated.
But chlamydia can occasionally cause symptoms. Heres a look at the common ones you might notice.
Just remember, you could still have chlamydia without these symptoms. If theres a chance you may have been exposed to the bacteria, your safest bet is to get tested as soon as possible.
Chlamydia can cause unusual vaginal discharge. It might be:
- foul smelling
Chlamydia can also affect your rectum. This can result from having unprotected or a vaginal chlamydia infection spreading to your rectum.
You might also notice mucus-like discharge coming from your rectum.
Chlamydia sometimes causes inflammation that leads to bleeding between your periods. This bleeding may range from light to moderately heavy.
Chlamydia can also lead to bleeding after any type of sexual activity involving penetration.
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Leads To Infertility In Women
Several cases of infertility have been observed till now and most of them use to happen just because of untreated Chlamydia. Whenever Chlamydia infection attacks a woman then it often creates trouble at uterus opening. Note that if this condition is ignored so long then bacterium starts traveling towards fallopian tube and then to ovaries.
This disease also causes harm to the hairs around the fallopian tube so the egg is not able to find guidance from ovaries towards womb. Such kind of damage leads to scars and slowly the tube may get blocked. This blockage is a major reason behind infertility. Some professionals have also reported the presence of ectopic pregnancy in Chlamydia affected women so it is really important to get it treated on time so that complications can be avoided.
What Is The Prognosis For A Female With Chlamydia
As discussed previously, chlamydia infection can progress to pelvic inflammatory disease if untreated, which can have serious consequences. Complications include permanent damage to the reproductive organs, including infertility and an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia infection in pregnancy can also lead to low birth weight and premature delivery as well as pneumonia and eye damage in the newborn.
Having an untreated chlamydia infection can also increase a person’s risk for acquiring HIV infection. It can also increase the risk that a person with HIV infection will transmit the infection to others during sexual intercourse.
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Common Signs Of Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea can be a difficult STD to diagnose without the help of a medical professional and lab testing, particularly because it often presents very few symptoms.
Some men infected with gonorrhea may not notice any distinguishable symptoms, while others may experience:
- Painful, burning urination
- Yellow, green, or white penile discharge
- Swollen or tender testicles
- Rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding
The majority of women experience no sign of a gonorrhea infection, with noticeable symptoms being fairly rare. For those that do experience physical signs, symptoms may include:
- Painful urination
What Are The Goals Of Treatment For Chlamydia
Treatment of Chlamydia infections with an antibiotic is recommended to:
- Resolve symptoms if you have them. About 85% of patients with symptomatic infections of the urethra or cervix will improve within 2 weeks of starting an antibiotic.
- Prevent complications including infertility, chronic pain, and more severe infections.
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When Should You See A Doctor For Chlamydia
Chlamydia, if detected in its early stage, can be treated through medication that involves high doses of antibiotics. The most common antibiotics that are administered are:
- 1 gram of azithromycin
- 100 milligrams of oral doxycycline
Follow these medications as prescribed by the doctor and get your partner tested too, for better clarity on the larger situation. Make sure that you visit the doctor for a follow-up soon. Thereafter, you can gradually resume your former sex life!
How Long Do They Last
If you have noticed chlamydia symptoms, you should get tested and treated as soon as possible.
Once chlamydia treatment has begun, you should start to notice an improvement in your symptoms within a few days. Generally, most symptoms should go completely within 2 to 4 weeks.
If symptoms continue to get worse or do not show signs of improvement after 1 week, visit your local sexual health clinic for advice.
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How Do You Get Chlamydia
Chlamydia can be passed on through genital contact. This means you can get chlamydia from someone who has the infection if your genitals touch, even if you dont have sex or ejaculate .
You can also get chlamydia if you come into contact with infected semen or vaginal fluid, or get them in your eye.
Chlamydia cant be passed on through kissing, hugging, sharing towels or using the same toilet as someone with the infection.
First How Can Untreated Chlamydia Affect Your Health
Untreated chlamydia is especially problematic for people with uteruses, because it can have very serious consequences on reproductive health. For one, it can spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease , an infection of the reproductive organs, David Soper, M.D., director of the division of benign ob-gyn and professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Medical University of South Carolina, tells SELF. When it comes to the numbers, he says the condition affects about 10 to 15% of people assigned female at birth with untreated chlamydia.
Some people who develop PID from chlamydia then go on to develop an even more serious issue called perihepatitis or Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. While rare, this causes inflammation in the lining of the stomach and tissues surrounding the liver. One tip-off that you do have this condition is upper quadrant pain, Dr. Soper says. Its often paired with other symptoms like fever or chills.
Infertility is another concern. Both PID and untreated chlamydia can cause permanent scarring in the reproductive organs, blocking sperm and eggs from meeting. In fact, about 25% of infertility cases are due to obstructed fallopian tubes, Meike L. Uhler, M.D., a reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialist at the Fertility Centers of Illinois, tells SELF. In some cases, this can be fixed surgically, but not always.
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Pain In The Lower Abdomen
Chlamydia can cause pain in the lower abdomen. This pain might feel like a dull ache or even a sharp cramp. The muscles and nerves in your pelvis are connected to your back, so you might also feel pain in your lower back.
As the infection spreads inside your tissues, the inflammation can cause these types of pain. You can take over the counter painkillers to manage this pain while you get treatment for chlamydia.