Complications Associated With Male Chlamydia
- Inflammation of the testicles: In men, chlamydia can spread to the testicles and epididymis , causing them to become painful and swollen. This is known as epidymitis or epididymo-orchitis. If it’s not treated, there’s a possibility it could affect your fertility.
- Reactive arthritis: Chlamydia is the most common cause of sexually acquired reactive arthritis . This is where your joints, eyes or urethra become inflamed, usually within the first few weeks after having chlamydia. It can affect women who have had chlamydia but is more common in men. There’s currently no cure for SARA, but most people get better in a few months. In the meantime, treatment with NSAIDS such as ibuprofen can help relieve the symptoms
If any of these symptoms occur and if you get diagnosed with Chlamydia, then it is better to refrain from sex and inform all the sex partners to get a test for the same. With the proper course of treatment getting rid of Chlamydia is possible. To prevent Chlamydia, one should practice safe sex, avoid multiple sex partners and take periodic screening for STDs.
It is important to remember that if any symptoms are noticed, you need to meet a service provider for treatment in order to prevent complication. Since chlamydia infection is most commonly asymptomatic, it is necessary that you are screened if you’re sexually active and under 25 years old, you should get tested for chlamydia every year or every time you have a new partner.
Letting Partners Know You Have Chlamydia
Sexual partners may be infected too. If you have chlamydia, anyone you have had sex with from the last 6 months needs to be informed, tested and treated.
If they dont know, they could reinfect you or infect someone else if they are not treated. dont receive treatment.
Most people will appreciate being told they may have an infection and it is an important step in preventing further infection in the community.
Your local GP and sexual health centre can help you inform your partners and let them know that they need a test. This process is called partner notification. It can be done anonymously, and your confidentiality is always respected.
You can also anonymously notify your sexual partners of the need to get tested and treated for chlamydia via the Let Them Know website if you feel unable to speak to them personally.
There are also nurses who can help you anonymously notify your partners. They can be contacted on .
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Chlamydia And Gonorrhea
There is a wide range of sexually-transmitted diseases that every sexually active adult should be aware of, but two of the best-known and most common are chlamydia and gonorrhea. While both gonorrhea and chlamydia can be cured with proper medical treatment, recognizing the signs early is critical in obtaining timely care. While regular STD testing is one of the only no-fail methods for detecting STDs, being aware of the typical symptoms can be very helpful as well.
Here is a useful guide to the most common symptoms of chlamydia and gonorrhea, giving you a handy resource for supporting optimal sexual health. If you notice one or more of the symptoms below, its important to seek proper testing and treatment immediately.
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In Both Males And Females
Complications that may be seen in anyone include:
- Other STIs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea both make you more susceptible to other STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus . Having chlamydia can also increase your risk of developing gonorrhea, and vice versa.
- Reactive arthritis . Also called Reiters syndrome, this condition results from an infection in your urinary tract or intestines. Symptoms of this condition cause pain, swelling, or tightness in your joints and eyes, and a variety of other symptoms.
- Infertility. Damage to reproductive organs or to sperm can make it more challenging or, in some cases, impossible to become pregnant or to impregnate your partner.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
In the United States and other developed countries, the prevention of sexually transmitted genital infections and complications mainly focuses on screening and treating nonpregnant sexually active women aged 25 years or younger on an annual basis. Screening for pregnant women is recommended, and screening and treatment of women over 25 years of age are recommendations if there are identifiable risk factors, such as new or multiple sexual partners. Screening of young men in high-risk settings should be a consideration if resources allow. Urine or endocervical NAAT are the recommended screening tests. The partner should be screened and treated at the same time.
Healthcare workers and nurse practitioners should educate patients on the importance of using a condom during sex, practicing safe sex or abstaining from sexual activity to prevent chlamydia.
Pharmacists should verify dosing and agent selection for antimicrobial therapy, check for drug interactions, and report any concerns to the prescriber.
The prognosis is excellent with prompt initiation of treatment early, and with the completion of the entire course of antibiotics, antibiotic treatment is 95% effective for first-time therapy.
No vaccine is currently available for either trachoma or chlamydial genital infections.
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Who To Test For Chlamydia
Anyone with the following genital symptoms should not have sex until they see a healthcare provider:
- A discharge
- A burning sensation when peeing
- Unusual sores, or a rash
Anyone having oral, anal, or vaginal sex with a partner recently diagnosed with an STD should see a healthcare provider.
Because chlamydia usually has no symptoms, screening is necessary to identify most infections. Screening programs can reduce rates of adverse sequelae in women.31,41 CDC recommends yearly chlamydia screening of all sexually active women younger than 25. CDC also recommends screening for older women with risk factors, such as new or multiple partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection.40 Screen and treat those who are pregnant as noted in How does chlamydia affect a pregnant person and their baby? Women who are sexually active should discuss their risk factors with a healthcare provider to determine if more frequent screening is necessary.
Routine screening is not necessary for men. However, consider screening sexually active young men in clinical settings with a high prevalence of chlamydia. This can include adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, and STD clinics. Consider this when resources permit and do not hinder screening efforts in women.40
What Happens If I Test Positive
If you test positive, instruction will be provided on how to obtain a free telemedicine consultation with a physician in your state. This physician may be able to prescribe treatment for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea or Trich. Depending on the infection, you may also need to retest after treatment to confirm the infection is gone.
It is crucial that you inform your sexual partners of your test results, whether theyâre positive or negative. Sharing this information will help stop the spread of any infection and will allow your partners to seek testing and treatment immediately if necessary.
Keep testing. Just because youâve tested once does not mean that you shouldnât test again. In fact, itâs common to get infected with certain STDs, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, multiple times. myLAB Box recommends that you test every few months, especially if youâve received a positive result in the past.
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Does My Partner Need To Be Treated
Yes. Also, any other sexual partners within the previous six months should also be tested for infection.
If your sexual partner is infected and not treated then chlamydia can be passed back to you again after you are treated.
There may be certain occasions when you may not want to contact partners from previous relationships. In these cases staff at the clinic can contact previous partners for you without disclosing your details. This is because it is important that anyone who is at risk of infection with chlamydia be both identified and treated.
Danger Factors For Getting Gonorrhea And Chlamydia Are Frequently Indistinguishable And Include:
- Having numerous sex partners. Youre bound to be presented to somebody with an explicitly sent contamination if you have numerous sex partners.
- Unprotected sex. Condom utilization during sex generously decreases the danger of getting a sexually transmitted infection, so your danger is higher if you have unprotected sex.
- Having different STIs: If you as of now have a sexually transmitted infection, you can be at a more serious danger of getting another STI. For instance, if you contract chlamydia, you could be bound to contract gonorrhea.
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Chlamydia In The Rectum Throat Or Eyes
Chlamydia can also infect:
- the rectum if you have unprotected anal sex this can cause discomfort and discharge from your rectum
- the throat if you have unprotected oral sex this is uncommon and usually causes no symptoms
- the eyes if they come into contact with infected semen or vaginal fluid this can cause eye redness, pain and discharge
How Is Chlamydia Transmitted
Penetration doesnt have to occur to contract it. Touching genitals together may transmit the bacteria. It can also be contracted during anal sex.
Newborn babies can acquire chlamydia from their mother during birth. Most prenatal testing includes a chlamydia test, but it doesnt hurt to double-check with an OB-GYN during the first prenatal checkup.
A chlamydia infection in the eye can occur through oral or genital contact with the eyes, but this isnt common.
Its also possible to get a chlamydia infection in the anus. In this case, the main symptoms are often:
- bleeding from this area
Having oral sex with someone who has the infection raises the risk of getting chlamydia in the throat. Symptoms can include a sore throat, cough, or fever. Its also possible to carry bacteria in the throat and not know it.
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When To See A Healthcare Provider
It’s important to talk to your healthcare provider if you have any signs or symptoms of chlamydia, any other symptoms that concern you, or if you know or think you’ve been exposed to the infection.
According to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force , women 25 and under and those who are sexually active should be screened for chlamydia every year, as should older women who have an increased risk of infection.
Screening for other sexually transmitted infections is important as well, as the risk factors for chlamydia also increase the likelihood of contracting these other infections. If you are treated for chlamydia, be sure to tell your healthcare provider if any symptoms persist.
Symptoms Of Male Chlamydia:
In around 70 percent of the cases, there will be no signs of this condition seen initially in men. The symptoms will only appear after 1 to 3 weeks of exposure. When it appears, one must watch out for the following symptoms:
- Abnormal discharge from the penis usually yellowish, beige, milky, or clear
- Pain while urinating
- Itching or burning around the head of the penis
- Pain or swelling in the testicles
- Pain in the rectum discharge or bleeding can also be seen
- Inflammation in the eyes
- Sore throat
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Infection In The Rectum Throat Or Eyes
Both men and women can develop an infection in the rectum, throat or eyes by having unprotected anal or oral sex.
If infected semen or vaginal fluid comes into contact with the eyes, you can also develop conjunctivitis.
Infection in the rectum can cause discomfort, pain or discharge. Infection in the eyes can cause irritation, pain, swelling and discharge, and infection in the throat usually causes no symptoms.
How Do You Know If You Have Chlamydia In Your Throat
Many people with chlamydia in the throat have no symptoms. The only way to know for certain if you have this sexually transmitted infection in the throat is to get tested by a healthcare provider. Possible signs that you may have oral chlamydia include a sore throat that doesnât go away, along with a low-grade fever swollen lymph nodes oral canker sores or white spots in the back of the throat.
In some cases, one might confuse these chlamydia symptoms with strep throat or some other kind of throat infection. Thats why testing for STDs is so important, so consult with your healthcare provider if you suspect you may have been infected with an oral sexually transmitted disease.
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Clinical Features And Sequelae
- Genital infections with C. trachomatis present as urethritis and proctitis in men and women, cervicitis, salpingitis, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, and orchitis, epididymitis and prostatitis in men.
- Perinatal transmission of C. trachomatis can result in conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborns and young infants.
- Conjunctivitis and respiratory infections can be the result of contact with contaminated hands, or direct exposure to semen and vaginal fluids.
- At least 70% of genital C. trachomatis infections in women and 50% in men are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis.
- The natural course of genital chlamydia infections is not well understood:
- Spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic infections is not uncommon.
- Asymptomatic infections, particularly endocervical infections, can persist for long periods.
- Many patients with asymptomatic infections will at some point develop symptoms and clinical disease.
- Asymptomatic infections can result in complications such as blocked tubes and pelvic inflammatory disease.
How Can I Make Sure I Dont Give Anyone Chlamydia
If you find out that you have chlamydia, dont panic. Chlamydia is easily cured, and there are a few ways to make sure you dont spread it to other people.
Tell your past and present sexual partners you have chlamydia, so they can get tested and treated too.
Don’t have sex with ANYONE for 7 days from when you got or started treatment.
Your sex partners should also be treated before they have sex with anyone, including you.
Once youve finished your treatment and start having sex again, its still a good idea to use condoms every single time you have sex.
Telling someone you have chlamydia isnt anyones idea of a good time. But the infection is really, REALLY common and can be easily cured, so try not to be too embarrassed or stressed out about it. Once you get the conversation over with, you can both get treated and get on with your lives.
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Deterrence And Patient Education
Asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is very common, whereas the consequences of undiagnosed or untreated infection can be far-reaching. It is for these reasons that screening is recommended. All pregnant women are recommended to be screened for C. trachomatis. All sexually active females younger than 25 should be screened annually. Women older than 25 should be screened if they have risk factors for sexually transmitted infections. Risk factors include sexual partners with multiple concurrent partners, new or multiple sexual partners, inconsistent use of condoms if the relationship is not monogamous, exchanging sex for money or drugs, or previous/coexisting STI. Men who have sex with men should also be screened for chlamydial infection. In individuals with HIV, screening should be done at the initial presentation and annually. For individuals entering a correctional facility, it is recommended to screen for chlamydia in women 35 years old or younger and men thirty years old or younger.
In the United States, C. trachomatis is considered a notifiable infection. Local and state laws regarding disease reporting apply. Sexual partners should be notified, examined, and treated if an STI is found in the index patient. Expedited partner therapy may also be available in certain settings. Expedited partner therapy allows providers to prescribe antibiotics to sexual contacts without establishing a physician-patient relationship.
Is Chlamydia Serious
Although chlamydia does not usually cause any symptoms and can normally be treated with a short course of antibiotics, it can be serious if it’s not treated early on.
If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of your body and lead to long-term health problems, especially in women.
In women, untreated chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease , ectopic pregnancy and infertility.
In men, in rare cases, chlamydia can spread to the testicles and epididymis , causing them to become painful and swollen. This is known as epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis .
It can also sometimes cause reactive arthritis in men and women.
This is why it’s important to get tested and treated as soon as possible if you think you might have chlamydia.
Testing for chlamydia is done with a urine test or a swab test.
You do not always need a physical examination by a nurse or doctor.
Anyone can get a free and confidential chlamydia test at a sexual health clinic, a genitourinary medicine clinic or a GP surgery.
In England, if you’re a woman under 25 years old, you may be offered a chlamydia test when you visit some health services, for example a pharmacy or GP. This offer is part of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme .
If you’re offered a chlamydia test you should consider taking it.
If you’re a woman, sexually active and under 25 in England, it’s recommended that you have a chlamydia test once a year, and when you have sex with new or casual partners.
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What About Partners
People treated for chlamydia should tell their recent sex partners so the partner can see a healthcare provider. Recent partners include anyone the patient had anal, vaginal, or oral sex with in the 60 days before symptom onset or diagnosis. This will help protect the partner from health problems and prevent re-infection.
Patients treated with single-dose antibiotics should not have sex for seven days. Patients treated with a seven-day course of antibiotics should not have sex until they complete treatment, and their symptoms go away.
For tips on talking to partners about sex and STD testing, visit www.gytnow.org/talking-to-your-partner/
In some states, healthcare providers may give people with chlamydia extra medicine or prescriptions to give to their sex partner. This is called expedited partner therapy, or EPT. Clinical trials comparing EPT to asking the patient to refer their partners in for treatment find that EPT leads to fewer re-infections in the index patient and more partner treatment.52 EPT is another strategy providers use to manage the partners of people with chlamydial infection. Partners should still seek medical care, regardless of whether they receive EPT. For more information about EPT, including the legal status in a specific area, see Legal Status of Expedited Partner Therapy.