How Soon After Unprotected Sex Can I Test For Chlamydia And Gonorrhoea
You should test for chlamydia and gonorrhoea 14 days after you have had unprotected sex, unless you already have symptoms.
This is because chlamydia and gonorrhoea have an incubation period, meaning they may not show up on a test if you take it too early. To get the most accurate results you need to wait for 2 weeks after exposure to get tested.
There is a small chance that the infection may not show up on a test, and give you a negative result. Therefore, if you receive a negative test, you should repeat the test 6 weeks later to confirm your results.
Epic Test Procedure Code: Lab2053
Swab specimens from genital or oral urine
1. Collect the specimen using the appropriate collection swab .2. Place the swab in Roche Cobas 4800 media, M4-RT or M6 viral transport media.3. Label the tube with the patient’s full name, date of birth, identification number, date and time of collection, initials of the person collecting the specimen, and the specimen source.4. Maintain sterility and forward promptly.5. The specimen source is required on the request form for processing.Urine:1. Collect 10 – 50 mL from a first-catch, random urine collection in a polypropylene container without preservative. Urine that has been transferred to a yellow top tube without preservative is also acceptable.2. Label the container with the patient’s full name, date of birth, identification number, date and time of collection, initials of the person collecting the specimen, and the specimen source.3. Maintain sterility and forward promptly.4. The specimen source is required on the request form for processing.
How Reliable Is Urine Testing For Gonorrhea And Chlamydia
Am Fam Physician. 2005 Dec 1 72:2354.
Until recently, testing patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea involved collecting samples from the cervix or urethra and sending them for cultures. The discomfort and embarrassment associated with sampling these sites may deter some high-risk patients from seeking testing for these treatable infections. An alternative to cervical or urethral cultures is nucleic acid amplification tests that can be performed on urine samples. Three types of NAAT are commercially available: polymerase chain reaction , transcription-mediated amplification, and strand displacement amplification. However, concerns remain about the sensitivity and specificity of the NAAT compared with culture techniques. Cook and colleagues conducted a systematic review of the literature to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the NAAT for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in urine samples with that of cervical and urethral samples.
The authors conclude that all three commercially available NAATs have high sensitivity and specificity for chlamydia regardless of the site of sample collection. With the exception of PCR for detection of gonorrhea in women, urine samples perform as well as samples collected from other sites. The authors suggest that the widespread use of NAATs on urine samples may improve adherence to screening recommendations for these common sexually transmitted diseases.
Read the full article.
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Fda Allows For First Point
Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced it is allowing the use of the Binx Health IO CT/NG Assay at point-of-care settings, such as in physician offices, community-based clinics, urgent care settings, outpatient health care facilities and other patient care settings, operating under a CLIA Certificate of Waiver, Certificate of Compliance or Certificate of Accreditation. This action is the result of the FDA granting a waiver under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 for the Binx Health IO CT/NG Assay.
The ability to diagnose at a point-of-care setting will help with more quickly and appropriately treating sexually-transmitted infections, which is a major milestone in helping patients, said Tim Stenzel, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health in the FDAs Center for Devices and Radiological Health. More convenient testing with quicker results can help patients get access to the most appropriate treatment. According to the CDC, one in five Americans are diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections every year, which is why access to faster diagnostic results and faster, more appropriate treatments will make significant strides in combatting these infections.
When Should I Get Chlamydia Testing
As most people infected with chlamydia do not experience symptoms, doctors rely on screening to detect most cases of chlamydia. Screening guidelines vary based on many factors, including a persons anatomy, health, and sexual practices. Regular screening for chlamydia is recommended for several groups:
Certain factors increase the risk of contracting chlamydia and may affect how often a person should be screened. Risk factors include having:
- Sex with a new partner
- More than one sexual partner or a partner who has sex with mutiple people
- A sex partner diagnosed with an STD
Testing for chlamydia is more frequently conducted in asymptomatic people in settings where infection rates are high, which often includes correctional facilities, adolescent health clinics, the military, and sexual health clinics.
Diagnostic chlamydia testing is recommended for anyone with signs or symptoms of this infection. When symptoms do occur, they may not appear until a few weeks after exposure. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia can vary based on the site of infection but may include:
- Burning during urination
- Abnormal discharge from the vagina, penis, or rectum
- Vaginal bleeding after sex or pain during intercourse
- Pain, tenderness, or swelling in the testicles or scrotum
- Rectal pain
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Urine Testing Vs Bacterial Culture
Urine testing is currently primarily used to detect bacterial STDs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea urine tests are widely available. Trichomoniasis urine tests are also available, but they are less common.
The gold standard for diagnosing bacterial STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, used to be bacterial culture. That involved attempting to grow bacteria out of samples that were taken directly from the cervix or urethra.
These days, bacterial DNA testing is considered a better option. It works differently than bacterial culture. Instead of trying to grow bacteria, these tests just look for bacterial DNA. This can be done using a process called ligase chain reaction or with other DNA amplification techniques.
These types of testing are sensitive to even very small amounts of bacterial DNA. Even better, they do not require a live bacterial sample. As such, they can be run on urine samplesnot just urethral or cervical swabs.
For most people, the thought of a getting gonorrhea urine test or chlamydia urine test is a lot less intimidating than the thought of needing a physical exam.
What Are The Symptoms Of Gonorrhea
Many women infected with Gonorrhea have no symptoms. If symptoms occur, they appear 2 to 10 days after exposure to the disease. Symptoms of Gonorrhea include:
- Thick, creamy, yellow vaginal discharge
- Burning or pain when you urinate
- Bleeding or spotting between periods
- Menstrual periods that are heavier than usual
- Abdominal pain
If symptoms occur, they usually appear 2 to 10 days after you were exposed to the bacteria. Symptoms of Gonorrhea include:
- Thick, yellow discharge from the penis
- Burning or pain when you urinate
- Urge to urinate often
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Comparing Urine Std Tests To Other Std Tests
Some people still question whether urine testing is as effective at detecting bacterial STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. These questions usually focus on the efficacy of the tests in women. Why?
The most common site of female infection is not on the pathway that urine travels out of the body. In contrast, urine passes through the most common site of infection , in men.
A 2015 review that examined 21 studies on the relative effectiveness of using different types of samples to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea found that:
- For chlamydia testing in women, the sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 99% for urine samples compared to cervical samples.
- For chlamydia testing in men, the sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 99% for urine samples compared to urethral samples.
- For gonorrhea testing in women, the sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 99% for urine samples compared to cervical samples.
- For gonorrhea testing in men, the sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 99% for urine samples compared to urethral samples.
By and large, these results are relatively consistent across studies. Interestingly, self-collected vaginal swabs were closer in effectiveness to cervical swabs than urine testing. For some women, those may be a more acceptable alternative to a pelvic exam if urine testing isn’t available.
How Does The Test Work
The chlamydia and gonorrhoea home test kit is easy to use. When you order the kit, it will be delivered to an address of your choice in discreet packaging. There will be no way to identify the contents of the packaging we send the test in without opening it.
For men, the test requires a urine sample. Inside the test kit will be a small container where you will provide your sample. For women, it is a swab test. You insert the swab into your vagina, and then seal the swab in a container provided in the test kit. You then send your sample to our partner lab, who will analyse it.
It is a polymerase chain reaction test which analyses a short sequence of DNA or RNA. The sample you provide will only contain a small sample of DNA, but the lab will amplify this so that it is large enough to analyse and establish if you have an infection.
PCR tests are an effective way of diagnosing infections.
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Clinical Information Discusses Physiology Pathophysiology And General Clinical Aspects As They Relate To A Laboratory Test
Chlamydiais caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States. In 2010, 1.3 million documented cases were reported to the CDC. Given that 3 out of 4 infected women and 1 out of 2 infected men will be asymptomatic initially, the actual prevalence of disease is thought to be much greater than reported. The organism causes genitourinary infections in women and men and may be associated with dysuria as well as vaginal, urethral, or rectal discharge. In women, complications include pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis, and infertility. Approximately 25% to 30% of women who develop acute salpingitis become infertile. Complications among men are rare but include epididymitis and sterility. Rarely, genital chlamydial infection can cause arthritis with associated skin lesions and ocular inflammation . C trachomatis can be transmitted from the mother during delivery and is associated with conjunctivitis and pneumonia. Finally, C trachomatis may cause hepatitis and pharyngitis in adults.
How Do The Symptoms Compare
Both men and women can get chlamydia or gonorrhea and never develop any symptoms.
With chlamydia, symptoms may not appear for a few weeks after youve contracted the infection. And with gonorrhea, women may never experience any symptoms at all or may only show mild symptoms, while men are more likely to have symptoms that are more severe.
A couple of the most telltale symptoms of these STIs overlap between the two , such as:
- burning when you pee
- abnormal, discolored discharge from the penis or vagina
- abnormal discharge from the rectum
- pain in the rectum
- bleeding from the rectum
With both gonorrhea and chlamydia, men may also experience abnormal swelling in their testicles and scrotum, and pain when they ejaculate.
You may also develop symptoms that affect your throat if you engage in oral sex with someone who has one of these conditions. This can cause mouth and throat symptoms, including sore throat and a cough.
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Benefits Of Early Detection And Intervention Or Treatment
The USPSTF found adequate direct evidence that screening reduces complications of chlamydial infection in women who are at increased risk, with a moderate magnitude of benefit.
The USPSTF found adequate evidence that screening for gonorrhea results in a moderate magnitude of benefit based on the large proportion of cases that are asymptomatic, the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment to reduce infections, and the high morbidity associated with untreated infections.
The USPSTF found inadequate evidence that screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea reduces complications of infection and transmission or acquisition of either disease or HIV in men. The magnitude of benefit is unknown.
Limits Of Urine Tests For Gonorrhea And Chlamydia
In 2018, 1.8 million cases of chlamydia were reported to the CDC in addition to 583,405 cases of gonorrhea. These numbers show an increment of 19% and 63% since 2014 for the two diseases respectively.
Most infections with gonorrhea and chlamydia are asymptomatic. The fact that many people have no symptoms means that the only way to detect and treat these infections is through screening.
In men, these diseases most commonly infect the urethra, and in women the cervix. However, it is possible to get both of these diseases in the throat, from oral sex. Anal sex can also lead to rectal chlamydia and rectal gonorrhea infections.
Neither rectal nor oral/throat infections will be detected by urine testing. It is therefore important to let your healthcare provider know if you have unprotected oral or anal sex. Testing should be done separately for those sites.
Currently, it is recommended that men who have sex with men undergo urine, throat, and anal screening once a year. Other people who regularly have unprotected oral or anal sex should consider a similar screening regimen. People who only engage in vaginal intercourse can get by with urine testing alone for gonorrhea and chlamydia.
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In Both Males And Females
Complications that may be seen in anyone include:
- Other STIs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea both make you more susceptible to other STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus . Having chlamydia can also increase your risk of developing gonorrhea, and vice versa.
- Reactive arthritis . Also called Reiters syndrome, this condition results from an infection in your urinary tract or intestines. Symptoms of this condition cause pain, swelling, or tightness in your joints and eyes, and a variety of other symptoms.
- Infertility. Damage to reproductive organs or to sperm can make it more challenging or, in some cases, impossible to become pregnant or to impregnate your partner.
Testing Options For The Detection Of Gonorrhea And Chlamydia
Am Fam Physician. 2013 Sep 1 88:290-291.
Original Article: Diagnosis and Management of Gonococcal Infections
Issue Date: November 15, 2012
TO THE EDITOR: This article mentions a very important idea: Speculum examination may not be necessary to diagnose gonorrhea in women because of the comparable effectiveness of blind vaginal swabs. Additionally, a recent American Family Physician article on chlamydial infections states that the accuracy of on urine samples has been found to be nearly identical to that of samples obtained directly from the cervix or urethra.1 However, Dr. Mayor and colleagues cite a study that concluded that the sensitivity of urine polymerase chain reaction tests in women for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is too low to recommend routine testing.2
1. Mishori R, McClaskey EL, Winklerprins VJ.Chlamydia trachomatis infections: screening, diagnosis, and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012 86:11271132….
2. Cook RL, Hutchison SL, Østergaard L, Braithwaite RS, Ness RB. Systematic review: noninvasive testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ann Intern Med. 2005 142:914925.
3. Schoeman SA, Stewart CM, Booth RA, Smith SD, Wilcox MH, Wilson JD. Assessment of best single sample for finding chlamydia in women with and without symptoms: a diagnostic test study. BMJ. 2012 345:e8013.
KELECHI A. UDUHIRI, MD, MPH, MS
MICHELLE A. ROETT, MD, MPH, FAAFP
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Detect The Dna Of Both Chlamydia And Gonorrhoea Anonymously In Real
According to both CDC in USA and statistics in Singapore, Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea are the top 2 STIs. Left untreated both can cause serious long-term consequences such as infertility or complications during pregnancy affecting the unborn child.
With over 43,000 HIV & Rapid STD tests done, our clinic has the experience to detect sexually transmitted diseases and infections accurately.
Using the technology of real-time PCR , which simply means that the test is able to detect the DNA of both Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea in real-time, allows for accurate and quick diagnosis of STIs caused by these 2 organisms. The accuracy of the test can be up to 99%.
- We are one of the selected clinics in Singapore to test for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea anonymously.
- We adhere to guidelines recommended by the Ministry of Health Singapore.
- We offer only the Health Sciences Authority approved rapid HIV test kits.
- Our male & female doctors are trained and fully certified to conduct specialised HIV Testing.
- All our STD and HIV clinics adopt a discreet and professional approach during the STD consultation.
How Is Each Condition Transmitted
Both STIs are caused by bacterial infections that are transmitted through unprotected sexual contact, meaning sex without using a condom, dental dam, or another protective barrier between you and your partner during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
Its also possible to contract the infection through sexual contact that doesnt involve penetration. For example, if your genitals come into contact with the genitals of someone whos contracted the infection, its possible to develop the condition.
Both STIs can also be contracted through protected sex with a condom or other barrier if you dont use protection properly, or if the barrier breaks.
Either STI can be contracted even if you arent showing visible symptoms. Both STIs can also be transmitted to a child at birth if the mother has either condition.
Youre at increased risk for developing these and other STIs if you:
- have multiple sexual partners at one time
- dont properly use protection, such as condoms, female condoms, or dental dams
- regularly use douches which can irritate your vagina, killing healthy vaginal bacteria
- have contracted an STI before
Sexual assault can also increase your risk of both chlamydia or gonorrhea.
Both STIs can be diagnosed using similar diagnostic methods. Your doctor may use one or more of these tests to ensure that the diagnosis is accurate and that the right treatment is given:
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