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Point Of Care Chlamydia Testing

Development Of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Due To Chlamydial Infection

Understanding Point-of-Care Testing

The development of PID was included as a rate from the chlamydia-infected health states, assuming the risk of PID as constant over the course of the infection. The annual rate of PID due to chlamydia was estimated through evidence synthesis , and it is approximated well by a normally distributed variable with a mean of 0.154 and standard deviation of 0.049. We assumed the rate pertains to first-time infections, with a higher risk among those with repeat infections, at a fixed relative rate of 1.15, based on evidence from longitudinal studies .

How Is Chlamydia Treated

Your healthcare practitioner will prescribe antibiotics to treat chlamydia. Antibiotics can cure your infection, but damage from the infection may sometimes be permanent. If symptoms do not resolve after a few days, consult your healthcare provider. You should refrain from having sex until you have completed your treatment and should be re-tested three months after treatment.

Sti Poct Health Systems Integration

Although aimed at the individual, health innovations such as POCT are implemented within health systems and often have implications that are more complex than first appreciated. This recognition builds on the WHO definition of the health system as consisting of all organisations, people and action whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health. This notion of the health system requires moving beyond consideration of linear approaches comprising static health system building blocks to recognising the complex web of inter-relationships and pathways of influence that transform these blocks into people-centred systems. This requires taking an aerial view of the whole system when considering the implementation of innovations.

As illustrated in , health systems comprise both ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ moreover, rather than being a vehicle for technological innovations, they are grounded in political and social contexts, on international and national as well as subnational and local levels, with underlying power structures, interests and interdependencies.

Social construction perspective on health policy and systems ..

  • Normative/evaluation or exploratory/explanatory questions driven by social science research methods in addition to clinical and epidemiological research employing both qualitative and quantitative methodological tools.

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    The Above Policy Is Based On The Following References:

  • Aboud L, Xu Y, Chow EPF, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of pooling urine, anorectal, and oropharyngeal specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2021 19:285.
  • Adelaide Health Technology Assessment on behalf of National Horizon Scanning Unit . Rapid point-of-care test for the detection of chlamydia Horizon scanning prioritising summary – volume 13. Adelaide, SA: Adelaide Health Technology Assessment on behalf of National Horizon Scanning Unit 2006.
  • Allaire AD, Huddleston JF, Graves WL, Nathan L. Initial and repeat screening for Chlamydia trachomatis during pregnancy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 1998 6:116-122.
  • Almeria J, Pham J, Paris KS, et al. Pooled 3-anatomic-site testing for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2021 48:e215-e222.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 4th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: AAP 1997.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics . Chlamydia trachomatis. In: Red Book: 2006 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. LK Pickering, CJ Baker, SS Long, JA McMillan, eds. 27th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics 2006:252-257.
  • Burstein GR, Gaydos CA, Diener-West M, et al. Incident Chlamydia trachomatis infections among inner-city adolescent females. JAMA. 1998 280:521-526.
  • Accounting For Delayed Treatment And Loss To Follow

    Chlamydia Test

    In the model, screening and treatment were operationalized simultaneously. The model-estimated rate of transition from infected to susceptible represents the effective treatment rate given a person was tested, retained in follow-up, and received treatment, and is equal to the inverse of the average duration from infection to treatment initiation for asymptomatic women. For sexually active women 1518 years old in 2015, the effective treatment rate was estimated as 0.69 per year . For women 1924 years old, it was 0.52 , and for women 2539 years old, it was 0.12 . A relative frequency was estimated for the same age groups of men and applied as a multiplier to the correspondent effective treatment rate for women in the same age group. For men 1524 years old, the relative frequency was 0.14 of the womens rate, and for men 2539 years old, the frequency was 0.02 of the womens rate. In the United States, no recommendations exist for screening heterosexual men, but men in high-burden areas are encouraged to be screened when resources allow . Limited screening of men occurs in some institutional settings . For women and men aged 4054 years, we assumed no routine screening.

    Using the duration from infection to treatment initiation , we could back-calculate the duration between screening tests, depending on the assumptions about LTFU and treatment delay: in O .

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    When Is It Ordered


    Because many infected people do not have any noticeable symptoms, a number of health organizations recommend regular chlamydia screening for certain people:


    All sexually active women younger than age 25 and sexually active women age 25 and older who are at increased risk should get yearly screening for chlamydia, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Academy of Pediatrics also recommend routine screening for these women .

    Examples of risk factors for chlamydia infection include:

  • Previous chlamydia infections, even if you have been treated
  • Having STDs, especially HIV
  • Having new or multiple sex partners
  • Having a sex partner diagnosed with an STD
  • Using condoms inconsistently
  • Exchanging sex for money or drugs
  • Using illegal drugs
  • Living in a detention facility
  • For pregnant women, the CDC recommends screening for chlamydia during the first trimester or first prenatal visit. For women younger than age 25 or at increased risk of infection, testing is repeated in the third trimester. Pregnant women diagnosed with chlamydia should be retested about 3 months after completing treatment.


    Chlamydia testing may also be done when your sex partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or when you have signs and symptoms of chlamydia.

    For women, if symptoms occur, they may include:

    For men, symptoms may include:

    Fda Allows For First Point

    Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced it is allowing the use of the Binx Health IO CT/NG Assay at point-of-care settings, such as in physician offices, community-based clinics, urgent care settings, outpatient health care facilities and other patient care settings, operating under a CLIA Certificate of Waiver, Certificate of Compliance or Certificate of Accreditation. This action is the result of the FDA granting a waiver under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 for the Binx Health IO CT/NG Assay.

    The ability to diagnose at a point-of-care setting will help with more quickly and appropriately treating sexually-transmitted infections, which is a major milestone in helping patients, said Tim Stenzel, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health in the FDAs Center for Devices and Radiological Health. More convenient testing with quicker results can help patients get access to the most appropriate treatment. According to the CDC, one in five Americans are diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections every year, which is why access to faster diagnostic results and faster, more appropriate treatments will make significant strides in combatting these infections.

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    Pid Diagnosis And Management

    There was a suggestion that PID is generally underdiagnosed in remote settings and that POC testing might heighten awareness of health professionals and strengthen management of these cases.

    I think it would reinforce management in people’s head as well, when you’ve got something immediate, you know, if it’s a week down the track then people⦠might forget the details of that case, but if you’ve got it there immediately and you thought âoh yeah okay that’s what it isâ .

    At the same time, the potential to rely too heavily on a POC test was highlighted by some participants, particularly in relation to the differential diagnosis of pelvic pain.

    ou’re not just talking about chlamydia and gonorrhoea, you are actually talking about what the test means in the context of who and what presenting symptoms they’ve had ⦠it’s not just here’s your test and it’s about the test, it’s actually about your predictive value of using that test depending on who you are testing ⦠and getting across that understanding of how you interpret it ⦠related to the individual that they’re testing basically or the age group if you like .

    Some participants also questioned whether PID treatment algorithms would change in the context of a POC test.

    But in terms of, for example, the PID treatment, if you did a swab on a woman with pelvic pain and did a point-of-care test that showed they had Chlamydia, I think that you’d be treating for PID, which covers Gonorrhoea treatment .

    Learn About The Types Of Sti Tests What To Expect And Where And How To Get Tested

    Utilising point of care testing POCT and service redesign to establish an ambulatory emergency care

    Sexually transmitted infections are very common. Unfortunately, many STIs dont have symptoms. That means that many people who have an STI dont know it. The only way to know is to get tested.

    Getting tested ensures you receive prompt treatment if you test positive. This prevents serious health issues from developing. The sooner you know, the better off youll be.

    The good news is most STIs are treatable and many are curable.

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    What Does The Test Result Mean

    A positive test indicates you have an active chlamydia infection that requires treatment with antibiotics.

    A negative test means only that there is no evidence of infection at the time of the test. If you are at an increased risk, it is important that you have screening tests performed yearly to check for possible infection, especially since re-infection is common, particularly among teenagers.

    If you are infected, your sexual partner should be tested and treated as well.

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Hidden Epidemic In The United States And Beyond

    The need to develop sensitive, specific, and more easily available point-of-care technologies for diagnosing sexually transmitted diseases is critical. Five of the top ten reportable diseases in the United States are STDs. CDC data indicate that in 2018 in the United States, a combined total of nearly 2.5 million new cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were reported. The global incidence of four curable sexually transmitted diseases is estimated at over 357 million cases. Many cases go undiagnosed and untreated.

    Young people are particularly affected, accounting for half of all new infections. Some of these sexually transmitted infections have the potential to cause serious health problems, especially if not diagnosed and treated early. Stigma, privacy, and confidentiality issues make STDs/STIs optimal areas for point-of-care tests at healthcare facilities and for over-the-counter tests performed at home.

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    Ability To Detect Drug Resistance

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in N gonorrhoeae is an urgent global public health concern, and N gonorrhoeae has been listed as a priority pathogen by the WHO.43 The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately half of all gonorrhea infections in the United States are resistant to at least 1 antibiotic.3 Recently, several extensively resistant strains of gonorrhea, so-called superbugs, that are highly resistant to azithromycin and resistant to ceftriaxonethe last line of empiric therapyhave emerged.4446 Additionally, the spread of ceftriaxone-resistant strains has been found in Canada and Denmark.45 The increasing identification of highly resistant strains of N gonorrhoeae highlights the impending threat of untreatable gonorrhea.

    A Systematic Review Of Point Of Care Testing For Chlamydia Trachomatis Neisseria Gonorrhoeae And Trichomonas Vaginalis

    Hot Selling Ct Ag Diagnostic Chlamydia Rapid Test

    Sasha Herbst de Cortina


    Objectives. Systematic review of point of care diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and Trichomonas vaginalis . Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity 90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities < 60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests.. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.

    1. Introduction

    2. Methods

    3. Results

    3.1. Performance Evaluations

    Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Conducting The Poc Test

    Several participants questioned the logistics of locating test equipment and consumables within smaller remote services, where bench and storage space may be limited. Depending on the test device, there may be need for a continuous power supply, refrigeration and internet connectivity. Maintaining confidentiality of patient results may also influence location of the test device.

    or the HIV tests we’re doing , they’re just a strip, but you need an area where you can sit that strip for it to be incubating where the patient’s not sitting on top of it, waiting for the result. So you would need to think about how big the machine is and where it’s going to go and is it okay that it sits in the room with you while you do the rest of the things and then goes, âbeepâ?

    How Is The Test Used

    Chlamydia testing is used to screen for and diagnose sexually transmitted infections caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is often done at the same time since the infections caused by these two bacteria can have similar signs and symptoms. These bacteria may be acquired at the same time, and you may have infections with both. A definitive diagnosis is important since the two infections require different antibiotic treatment.

    Repeat testing is recommended to ensure that treatment has been effective. This is done about three months after you have completed treatment.

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    Data Management And Analysis

    Recruitment continued until the data were saturated or no new themes emerged . Interviews were digitally-recorded, transcribed verbatim and transcripts were later checked for accuracy against the recordings and to ensure familiarisation prior to analysis. Transcripts were uploaded into QSR Nvivo , a qualitative data management and analysis program . Each transcript was systematically coded and content analysis was performed to examine frequencies of recurring codes and to allocate salient themes .

    What Are Reportable Stis

    Advances in Point-Of-Care Testing for Infectious Diseases

    Most STI testing is carried out confidentially, which means your results are not shared with anyone, and most testing is completely anonymous if you go to a clinic.

    In B.C., syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and HIV are reportable STIs. This means that positive results are reported to public health to help prevent the spread of STIs. This information is stored securely and kept confidential. Learn more about confidentiality.

    If you test positive for a reportable STI, anyone you have had sexual contact with or shared drug equipment with needs to be told that they may have been exposed to an STI. They can be told by you, a health care provider, or anonymously.

    Learn more about how STI reporting works.

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    Fda Clears Rapid Point

    The Food and Drug Administration has granted 510 clearance to binx io for womens health, a molecular point-of-care diagnostic testing platform for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in approximately 30 minutes.

    The binx io platform is a rapid, fully-automated test that requires no calibration or maintenance no additional steps are needed once the single-use, assay-specific cartridge is loaded into the instrument. It is intended for use at point-of-care or clinical laboratory settings using female vaginal swab samples that are collected either by a clinician or self-collected by a patient in a clinical setting.

    The 510 clearance was granted based on a recent multicenter trial which included 17 evaluation centers and more than 1500 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. In the study, the accuracy and reliability of binx io was compared with current central lab standard of care systems for chlamydia and gonorrhea. According to the Company, results showed binx io was comparable to central lab testing with a 96.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity for chlamydia and 100% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for gonorrhea testing in women tested.

    Contributions To The Literature

    • Identification of implementation challenges for STI POCT in remote Australia and other settings where laboratory diagnosis is not available, or significant delays occur

    • There is broad acceptability of STI POCT among healthcare workers in communities with high endemicity of STIs

    • Healthcare worker recommendations to improve acceptability, compatibility, and reach in STI POCT scale up

    • Identification of healthcare workers barriers to POCT use, as well as recommendations to improve POCT operator self-efficacy, such as integration of timely refresher training/s

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    Management Of Client Flow And Wait Time

    The ease of performing the POC test, the turnaround time for the test result and how simply POC testing could be integrated into routine workflow were important considerations for many participants, though it was recognised that this would be largely influenced by the type of test. In particular, participants highlighted how clinical workflow can be impacted by a positive test.

    An important consideration highlighted by one participant is how critical it is for the test result to be read at a specific time point.

    ow important is it that its read at exactly the right time for instance ⦠that may never happen because there are all other contingencies that might come up and drag people away from the test .

    Participants recognised the opportunity for education and engagement that arises through POC testing as patients wait for their test results.

    hat opportunistic engagement around a whole range of health issues is potentially important. Anything that you can sell to the community that may make it more attractive to present at a service is going to be beneficial for a whole range of reasons .

    In particular, taking the opportunity to raise awareness about STI prevention in the context of a negative test result was highlighted.


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