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What Is Chlamydia Caused From

Deterrence And Patient Education

What Is Chlamydia Symptoms and Treatment

Asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is very common, whereas the consequences of undiagnosed or untreated infection can be far-reaching. It is for these reasons that screening is recommended. All pregnant women are recommended to be screened for C. trachomatis. All sexually active females younger than 25 should be screened annually. Women older than 25 should be screened if they have risk factors for sexually transmitted infections. Risk factors include sexual partners with multiple concurrent partners, new or multiple sexual partners, inconsistent use of condoms if the relationship is not monogamous, exchanging sex for money or drugs, or previous/coexisting STI. Men who have sex with men should also be screened for chlamydial infection. In individuals with HIV, screening should be done at the initial presentation and annually. For individuals entering a correctional facility, it is recommended to screen for chlamydia in women 35 years old or younger and men thirty years old or younger.

In the United States, C. trachomatis is considered a notifiable infection. Local and state laws regarding disease reporting apply. Sexual partners should be notified, examined, and treated if an STI is found in the index patient. Expedited partner therapy may also be available in certain settings. Expedited partner therapy allows providers to prescribe antibiotics to sexual contacts without establishing a physician-patient relationship.

Are There Measures For Chlamydia Prevention

To protect yourself from a chlamydia infection, you should protect yourself and your sexual partner by using condoms also during oral and anal sex. You should also clean sex toys and your hands before and after contact with with bodily fluids. Furthermore, you should also ensure that you regularly test yourself for STIs if you change sexual partners frequently.

Immune Response In Humans

All chlamydial infections induce IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE antibodies, but theseantibodies do not prevent reinfection. Although secretions from trachomatouseyes contain specific antitrachoma IgG and IgA antibodies, these antibodies donot impede the infection. Moreover, antibodies that bind to Ctrachomatis elementary bodies do not impair their infectivity incell cultures. However, the addition of anti-gamma globulin to antibody-treatedelementary bodies neutralizes their infectivity. Monoclonal antibodies toproteins in the outer elementary body envelope were reported to neutralizeelementary body infectivity. Most patients with C trachomatisinfections have antibodies that react with the C trachomatiscell wall proteins. Sera from individuals with genital infections caused byC trachomatis also reacted with the 60- to 62-kDacysteine-rich proteins of all the C trachomatis serotypes. Theprecise role of cell-mediated immunity is not known.

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Chlamydia Treatment: Can You Completely Cure Chlamydia

Chlamydia can be successfully treated with antibiotics. Chlamydia treatment typically takes one to three weeks. However, if the infection has caused scarring and damage to the tissue, this cannot be reversed. That is why diagnosing and treating chlamydia as early as possible is so important.

During chlamydia treatment, you should avoid having sex until you and your sexual partner have finished the course of treatment.

After treatment of chlamydia, a smear test or urine test is usually performed to check the success of treatment and to rule out re-infection .This is how you protect yourself from chlamydia.

Antibiotics And Other Treatments

Chlamydia in Women

Once diagnosed, chlamydia infection is usually fairly simple to treat.

  • A single dose of oral antibiotics: Often a single, oral dose of the antibiotic azithromycin is sufficient to clear an uncomplicated infection.
  • Longer courses of antibiotics: Alternative regimens involving longer courses of oral antibiotics are needed for those who cannot take azithromycin or who have more complicated forms of chlamydia infection. Since antibiotic resistance has been seen, you’ll want to get tested again several weeks after treatment to ensure that the infection was fully cleared.
  • Avoiding sexual activity: It is also important to avoid sexual activity after starting treatment, typically for one week or as advised by your physician.
  • Alerting sexual partners: It is important to alert any sexual partners that they need to be tested and possibly treated. This can also be a difficult conversation, and your physician’s office or local health department may be able to assist with anonymously alerting your sexual partner.

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Its Possible To Get Chlamydia Through Oral Or Anal Sex

You may have heard that its not possible to get chlamydia through oral or anal sex, but this is just a myth. If you have unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex, you could get chlamydia.

While its possible to get chlamydia through any of these sex acts, the risk varies depending on the type of sex youre having. Chlamydia isnt commonly passed through cunnilingus, but its possible. The infection is commonly passed through fellatio and anal sex.

No matter what type of sex youre having, its a good idea to use protection. This may include dental dams or condoms, depending on the sex act. Other types of contraception, like birth control pills and IUDs, dont provide any protection against chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections.

Where Can I Get More Information

Health care providers with STD consultation requests can contact the STD Clinical Consultation Network . This service is provided by the National Network of STD Clinical Prevention Training Centers and operates five days a week. STDCCN is convenient, simple, and free to health care providers and clinicians. More information is available at www.stdccn.orgexternal icon.

Division of STD Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-38271-800-783-987


1. OFarrell N, Morison L, Moodley P, et al. Genital ulcers and concomitant complaints in men attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic: implications for sexually transmitted infections management. Sexually transmitted diseases 2008 35:545-9.

2. White JA. Manifestations and management of lymphogranuloma venereum. Current opinion in infectious diseases 2009 22:57-66.

3. Kreisel KM, Spicknall IH, Gargano JW, Lewis FM, Lewis RM, Markowitz LE, Roberts H, Satcher Johnson A, Song R, St. Cyr SB, Weston EJ, Torrone EA, Weinstock HS. Sexually transmitted infections among US women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2018. Sex Transm Dis 2021 in press.

4. CDC. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2019. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services April 2021.

5. Torrone E, Papp J, Weinstock H. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Among Persons Aged 1439 Years United States, 20072012. MMWR 2014 63:834-8.

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How Easily Is Chlamydia Transmitted During Sexual Intercourse

Unfortunately, chlamydia is very easily transmitted through unprotected sexual contact. This is especially true because chlamydia infections are sometimes asymptomaticâmeaning they donât cause noticeable symptoms.

In fact, any time you come in contact with the bacteriaâeven if your sex partner doesnât ejaculate or you arenât fully penetratedâyou could become infected or pass along the chlamydial infection. This being the case, men and women should get tested for STIs before beginning any new sexual relationship.

Help Us Help You Get The Treatment You Need

Chlamydia: Sexually Transmitted Infection Symptoms and Treatment

Because of coronavirus , it can be hard to know what to do if you’re unwell. It’s important to get medical help if you think you need it.

  • For help from a GP use your GP surgery’s website, use an online service or app, or call the surgery.
  • For urgent medical help use the NHS 111 online service, or call 111 if you’re unable to get help online.
  • For life-threatening emergencies call 999 for an ambulance.

If you’re advised to go to hospital, it’s important to go.

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How Common Is Chlamydia In The Throat

Pharyngeal chlamydia isnât as common as urogenital or rectal infections. One review of existing studies found that pharyngeal chlamydia was equally frequent in women compared to men who have sex with menâoccurring in up to 3.2% of women and 3.6% of men who have sex with men, based on study populations at high-risk settings like sexually transmitted disease clinics (which means these figures donât apply to the general population. Less research has been done around the rate of pharyngeal chlamydia among men who have a female sexual partner.

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Chlamydia Overcomes Multiple Gastrointestinal Barriers To Achieve Long

trachomatis is frequently detected in the human gastrointestinal tract despite its leading role in sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the genital tract. , a model pathogen for investigating CT pathogenesis in the genital tract, can also colonize the mouse GI tract for long periods. Genital-tract mutants of CM no longer colonize the GI tract. The mutants lacking plasmid functions are more defective in colonizing the while certain chromosomal gene-deficient mutants are more defective in the , suggesting that Chlamydia may use the plasmid for promoting its spread to the while using the chromosome-encoded factors for maintaining its colonization in the large intestine. The plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is critical for Chlamydia to resist the acid barrier in the stomach and to overcome a CD4+ barrier in the small intestine. On reaching the large intestine, Pgp3 is no longer required. Instead, the chromosome-encoded TC0237/TC0668 become essential for Chlamydia to evade the group 3-like innate lymphoid cell-secreted interferon in the large intestine. These findings are important for exploring the medical significance of chlamydial colonization in the gut and for understanding the mechanisms of chlamydial in the genital tract.

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What Complications Can Result From Chlamydial Infection

The initial damage that chlamydia causes often goes unnoticed. However, chlamydial infections can lead to serious health problems with both short- and long-term consequences.

In women, untreated chlamydia can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease . Symptomatic PID occurs in about 10 to 15 percent of women with untreated chlamydia.30,31 However, chlamydia can also cause subclinical inflammation of the upper genital tract . Both acute and subclinical PID can cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues. The damage can lead to chronic pelvic pain, tubal factor infertility, and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy.32,33

Some patients with chlamydial PID develop perihepatitis, or Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome, an inflammation of the liver capsule and surrounding peritoneum, which is associated with right upper quadrant pain.

In pregnant women, untreated chlamydia has been associated with pre-term delivery,34 as well as ophthalmia neonatorum and pneumonia in the newborn.

Reactive arthritis can occur in men and women following symptomatic or asymptomatic chlamydial infection, sometimes as part of a triad of symptoms formerly referred to as Reiters Syndrome.35

How To Treat Chlamydia

Chlamydia in Women

Chlamydia is an easy infection to treat, and can be completely cured if the necessary medication is taken correctly.

Being a bacterial infection, chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics. Chlamydia treatment for uncomplicated infection usually consists of taking an antibiotic tablet for seven days.

You should take your antibiotics exactly as directed by your doctor. More than 95% of people who take their antibiotics correctly will be completely cured. It’s also important not to have any sex during your treatment and get all partners tested and treated if necessary.

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What Is A Uti

A urinary tract infection, or UTI, refers to a bacterial infection in any part of your urinary system, including the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. Most UTIs affect the lower urinary tract, comprising the urethra and bladder. UTIs can become more severe as they reach the kidneys.

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection include:

  • A frequent, persistent urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • Frequently passing small amounts of urine
  • Urine appearing cloudy, red, bright pink, or cola-colored
  • Urine that has a strong smell
  • Pelvic pain

Know Your Sexual Health Status

If you have recently changed sexual partners, or have multiple sex partners, getting regularly tested for STIs will tell you if you have an infection. Some people can have an STI and not have any symptoms. Finding and treating an STI reduces the chances of passing infections on to your partner.

The more partners you have, the higher your chances of getting exposed to STIs.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Chlamydia In Women

Women may take several weeks to exhibit any symptoms. Many times, there may be no symptoms. Some common symptoms of chlamydia in women include:

  • Burning or stinging sensation during urination
  • Painful urination
  • Infection in the anus
  • Throat infection throat pain, cough and fever

Infection can spread to the fallopian tubes, resulting in a serious condition called pelvic inflammatory disease . This is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of PID include:

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Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All

What causes bleeding post antibiotics for Chlamydial Infection? – Dr. Sunita Pawar Shekokar
  • What is a sexually transmitted infection ?

    A sexually transmitted infection is an infection spread by sexual contact. There are many STIs. This FAQ focuses on chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. These STIs can cause long-term health problems and problems during pregnancy. Having an STI also increases the risk of getting human immunodeficiency virus if you are exposed to it.

  • What is chlamydia?

    Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STI in the United States. Chlamydia is caused by a type of bacteria, which can be passed from person to person during vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex. Infections can occur in the mouth, reproductive organs, urethra, and rectum. In women, the most common place for infection is the cervix .

  • What are the risk factors for chlamydia?

    The following factors increase the risk of getting chlamydia:

  • Having a new sex partner

  • Having more than one sex partner

  • Having a sex partner who has more than one sex partner

  • Having sex with someone who has an STI

  • Having an STI now or in the past

  • Not using condoms consistently when not in a mutually monogamous relationship

  • Exchanging sex for money or drugs

  • What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

    Chlamydia usually does not cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may show up between a few days and several weeks after infection. They may be very mild and can be mistaken for a urinary tract or vaginal infection. The most common symptoms in women include

  • yellow discharge from the vagina or urethra

  • yellow vaginal discharge

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    How Can I Make Sure I Dont Give Anyone Chlamydia

    If you find out that you have chlamydia, dont panic. Chlamydia is easily cured, and there are a few ways to make sure you dont spread it to other people.

    • Tell your past and present sexual partners you have chlamydia, so they can get tested and treated too.

    • Dont have sex with ANYONE for 7 days from when you got or started treatment.

    • Your sex partners should also be treated before they have sex with anyone, including you.

    • Once youve finished your treatment and start having sex again, its still a good idea to use condoms every single time you have sex.

    Telling someone you have chlamydia isnt anyones idea of a good time. But the infection is really, REALLY common and can be easily cured, so try not to be too embarrassed or stressed out about it. Once you get the conversation over with, you can both get treated and get on with your lives.

    How Can I Prevent Chlamydia

    It’s easier to prevent an STI like chlamydia than it is to treat it:

    • Don’t have more than one sex partner at a time. The safest sex is with one partner who has sex only with you. Every time you add a new sex partner, you are being exposed to all of the infections that all of their partners may have.
    • Use a condom every time you have sex. Latex and polyurethane condoms keep out the viruses and bacteria that cause STIs.
    • Be responsible. Don’t have sex if you have symptoms of an infection or if you are being treated for an STI.
    • Wait to have sex with a new partner until both of you have been tested for STIs.

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    Tips To Prevent Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease and can spread just like any other STD: through sexual contact. To prevent that from happening, here are some tips for sexually active people to help stay away from chlamydia.

    • Unprotected intercourse is the main cause of chlamydia, so make sure to use a latex condom to prevent your chances of getting the infection.
    • People under the age of 25 and those with multiple sexual partners get affected with chlamydia the most, so limiting the number of sexual partners helps.
    • According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, getting chlamydia screening regularly if you are sexually active helps ensure that you dont get the infection.
    • Douching should be avoided since it reduces the healthy bacteria in the vagina that can reduce your chance of getting chlamydia.
    • If you feel that you are infected, avoid having sex until you are tested for chlamydia if your body is vulnerable, the chances of getting an infection increase.

    Chlamydia is very common, and anyone can get the infection. More than 1. 7 million people in the US had this infection in 2017, according to research. But, chlamydia is also easily treatable. So, if you experience any symptoms of chlamydia, its best to get screened for chlamydia.

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    What Are Common Chlamydia Symptoms

    Microscopic view of chlamydia. Chlamydia is a common sexually ...

    What does chlamydia look like? A chlamydia infection progresses differently for men and women and can also lead to different secondary diseases. After becoming infected with chlamydia, it takes about one to three weeks for chlamydia symptoms to appear if any develop at all.

    What many do not know is that chlamydia can be transmitted through sex by more than just the genitals. Infections can also occur in the mouth, throat, or anal area after oral or anal sex, leading to inflammation in the pharyngeal mucosa or the intestinal mucosa.

    The most common chlamydia symptoms include:

    • Itchiness
    • Bleeding between periods
    • Pain during sexual intercourse

    If an infection remains undetected, the pathogen spreads to the fallopian tubes and ovaries in 10 to 40 percent of those affected. There, chlamydia can lead to scarred tissue and thus to blockages in the passage of eggs. This can result in ectopic pregnancies and sterility, among other things. Other organs can also be affected from the fallopian tubes and ovaries and become inflamed.

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