Gonorrhea: Symptoms & Treatment Options
Symptoms: Most people dont have any symptoms when they have gonorrhea. However, those who do have reported the following issues: burning sensation when peeing a white, yellow, or green discharge when peeing or spotting between periods.
If you had anal sex, you might get anal itching or painful bowel movements.
Treatment: The really great news is that gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics. Its crucial to take every single prescribed dose. Otherwise, youll continue having the infection.
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Chlamydia Symptoms & Treatment
- Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection that is normally passed on through sex without a condom or sharing sex toys with someone who has the infection.
- Using male or female condoms and dental dams during sex will help to protect you from getting chlamydia.
- Chlamydia is often symptomless however if left untreated it can lead to long-term health problems.
- Chlamydia is easily treated with antibiotics.
- Chlamydia can be passed on from mother to child during pregnancy, so its important for pregnant women to get tested.
How Can I Avoid Catching It
If youre sexually active, you can catch chlamydia, but there are ways to reduce your chances. Condoms are best, so use them when having vaginal, anal or oral sex. If you are having oral sex, a dental dam is a piece of thin, soft plastic/latex that covers the vagina and can protect against various STIs. Also, avoid sharing sex toys, or if you do, wash them between uses or cover with a new condom. The NHS recommends getting tested at least once a year if youre under 25 and sexually active, or when you have a new sexual partner.
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How Long After Treatment Can I Have Sex Again
You should avoid being sexually active during treatment for chlamydia because you can still pass the infection to your sex partner during this time, even if you have no symptoms.
How long you should wait to have sex depends on the antibiotic you take.
If your doctor prescribes a single dose of antibiotics, wait until seven days after taking it. If you take a multi-dose antibiotic, wait until youve taken the full course of medication .
Because it is somewhat common to get a repeat infection of chlamydia, its a good idea to be tested for it again about three months after treatment.
You Wont Immediately Know If You Or Your Partner Have Chlamydia
Chlamydia is a serious disease, but if you or your partner become infected, you might not know right away. Early-stage infections often dont cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they can be easily overlooked.
If you have unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex, you could get chlamydia. While its possible to get chlamydia through any of these sex acts, the risk varies depending on the type of sex youre having.
For most women with chlamydia, the infection doesnt cause any symptoms. About half of men dont experience symptoms, either. This is why its so important to get tested regularly. For sexually active women under 25, yearly testing is recommended. Women who are over 25 should get tested when they have new partners or have other risk factors for chlamydia.
If symptoms occur, they usually start one to three weeks after infection. In women, these symptoms may include vaginal discharge, pain during sex, or painful urination. For men, signs of chlamydia may include discharge from the penis or pain in the testicles. Since these symptoms are relatively mild, its easy to overlook them.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Chlamydia
Chlamydia is known as one of the silent diseases which can produce no symptoms for a long period of time. Approximately 7095 percent of women and 50 percent of men with chlamydia do not observe chlamydia symptoms at all. The symptoms can also be mild and almost unnoticeable.
Another reason why symptoms are not the best way to determine the infection is that it is often confused with gonorrhea as the symptoms are very much alike. Asymptomatic nature of chlamydia makes it difficult to estimate how long a person remains infectious and this period is commonly believed to last until full recovery.
Chlamydia symptoms show up between 1 and 3 weeks after the contraction.
Interactions Of The Inclusion With Other Organelles
Chlamydia spp. establish close contact with numerous other organelles . Although many organelles and markers have been visualized inside the inclusion, some of these observations may have been exaggerated by fixation-induced translocation83. Lipid droplets49 and peroxisomes84 translocate into the lumen of the C. trachomatis inclusion and are a possible source of triacylglycerides and metabolic enzymes, respectively. Indeed, proteomic analysis of cells infected with C. trachomatis revealed an increase in lipid droplet content and an enrichment of proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and biosynthesis, including long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 85. Interestingly, these proteins can also be found on, or in, the inclusion86. Some proteins that are associated with lipid droplets or peroxisomes may affect bacterial processes. For example, the human acyl-CoA carrier, acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 6 , modulates the bacterial acyltransferase activity of CT775 in C. trachomatis and the formation of phophatidylcholine86,87. Whereas the mechanism of peroxisome uptake is unclear, the capture of lipid droplets may involve the chlamydial proteins Lda1, Lda3, Cap1 and CT618, as these proteins associate with lipid droplets when ectopically expressed in host cells49,85.
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Whats The Treatment For Chlamydia
Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics. If you take the treatment according to instructions, its over 95% effective at treating chlamydia.
- Youll be given a course of antibiotics for 3 or 7 days or sometimes up to two weeks.
- If theres a high chance you have chlamydia, treatment may be started before the results of the test are back. Youll always be given treatment if a sexual partner is found to have chlamydia.
- You may also need other treatment if complications have occurred.
- Tell the doctor or nurse if youre pregnant, or think you might be, or youre breastfeeding. This may affect the type of antibiotic youre given.
- Complementary therapies cant cure chlamydia.
Antibiotics Are A Highly Effective Cure For Chlamydia Infection
Antibiotics prescribed for chlamydia include:
A single oral dose of Zithromax is the most common treatment. Other drugs may be given in varying doses for a period of up to a week. Most cases of chlamydia clear up within a week after you start on antibiotics.
If you think you have been exposed to chlamydia, Stoner says, see your healthcare provider to receive antibiotic medication to prevent the onset of infection.
The partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia will need treatment, too, and in some states they can get it without a doctor visit through a practice called expedited partner therapy, in which the first person treated delivers the treatment to their partner or partners.
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How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Getting Chlamydia
The only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
If you are sexually active, you can do the following things to lower your chances of getting chlamydia:
- Be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and has negative STD test results
- Use latex condoms the right way every time you have sex.
Life Cycle Of Ct In The Human Body
Ct is a Gram-negative bacterium which exists in two forms: the infectious elementary body and the intracellular reticulate body , which is able to replicate and multiply. Infection begins when EBs attach to the membrane of a cell of the inner layer of the urogenital tract . EBs enter the cell and two hours later are transformed into RBs which grow and divide over the next hours, resulting in a rapid increase in number. At this point RBs transform into EBs. Usually, 4872 hours after infection, the host cell bursts to release the infectious EBs .
Figure 1. The life cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis in the female reproductive tract
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What Is The Best Home Remedy For Chlamydia
The only consistently proven cure for chlamydia is antibiotics. There are a few products and home remedies out there recommended by countless websites for curing chlamydia at home. Unfortunately, the results of these treatments can be inconsistent and never involve the use of actual antibiotics. The only guaranteed method of treating bacterial infections, like chlamydia, is antibiotics.
Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All
- What is a sexually transmitted infection ?
A sexually transmitted infection is an infection spread by sexual contact. There are many STIs. This FAQ focuses on chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. These STIs can cause long-term health problems and problems during pregnancy. Having an STI also increases the risk of getting human immunodeficiency virus if you are exposed to it.
- What is chlamydia?
Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STI in the United States. Chlamydia is caused by a type of bacteria, which can be passed from person to person during vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex. Infections can occur in the mouth, reproductive organs, urethra, and rectum. In women, the most common place for infection is the cervix .
- What are the risk factors for chlamydia?
The following factors increase the risk of getting chlamydia:
Having a new sex partner
Having more than one sex partner
Having a sex partner who has more than one sex partner
Having sex with someone who has an STI
Having an STI now or in the past
Not using condoms consistently when not in a mutually monogamous relationship
Exchanging sex for money or drugs
Chlamydia usually does not cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may show up between a few days and several weeks after infection. They may be very mild and can be mistaken for a urinary tract or vaginal infection. The most common symptoms in women include
yellow discharge from the vagina or urethra
yellow vaginal discharge
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Who Does Chlamydia Affect
Anyone whos sexually active can get chlamydia. The bacteria that causes chlamydia gets transmitted through vaginal fluid and semen, which means that people of all genders who have sex can become infected with chlamydia and infect their partners, too. If youre pregnant and have chlamydia, you can pass it on to your newborn.
How Do I Test For Chlamydia
If you think you’re at risk of having chlamydia or have any symptoms you should get tested as soon as possible. You can have a test even if you do not have symptoms.
Getting tested for chlamydia is easy and doesnt hurt. A healthcare professional will ask for a urine sample or take a swab from the area that might be infected, such as inside the vagina or inside the anus. If youve had anal or oral sex, you may have a swab taken from your anus or throat.
In some countries you can get a self-testing kit to do at home.
Its important to regularly test for chlamydia, even if you dont have any symptoms. Being treated as soon as possible will reduce your risk of developing any serious or long-term complications.
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Regulation Of Fusion And Membrane Dynamics
The intracellular survival of Chlamydia spp. depends on the ability of the inclusion to inhibit fusion with some compartments while promoting fusion with others . Chlamydia spp. achieve selective fusion by recruiting specific members of at least three families of fusion regulators : RAB GTPases and their effectors, phosphoinositide lipid kinases and SNARE proteins.
In addition, Chlamydia spp. control vesicle fusion by interacting with SNARE proteins . These include the trans-Golgi SNARE proteins syntaxin 6 58,59 and STX10 , vesicle-associated membrane protein 4 , a STX6 binding partner61, and GS15 62, which regulates the acquisition of nutrients from the Golgi exocytic pathway. The recruitment of STX6 requires a Golgi-targeting signal and VAMP4 . In an example of molecular mimicry, at least three Incs contain SNARE-like motifs , InaC and inclusion protein acting on microtubules ), which act as inhibitory SNARE proteins to limit fusion with compartments that contain VAMP3, VAMP7 or VAMP8 . In addition, the dimerization of SNARE-like domains facilitates homotypic fusion6365. Although the function of homotypic fusion is unclear, naturally occurring non-fusogenic strains of C. trachomatis produce fewer infectious progeny and milder infections66.
How Easily Is Chlamydia Transmitted During Sexual Intercourse
Unfortunately, chlamydia is very easily transmitted through unprotected sexual contact. This is especially true because chlamydia infections are sometimes asymptomaticâmeaning they donât cause noticeable symptoms.
In fact, any time you come in contact with the bacteriaâeven if your sex partner doesnât ejaculate or you arenât fully penetratedâyou could become infected or pass along the chlamydial infection. This being the case, men and women should get tested for STIs before beginning any new sexual relationship.
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Does Discharge From Your Penis Mean You Have Chlamydia
Not necessarily the presence of a white, cloudy or watery discharge from the end of your penis is a symptom of chlamydia in men. However, discharge can also be a sign of other issues such as:
- a urinary tract infection
In cases of chlamydia other symptoms which may occur alongside penile discharge include:
- Pain when you pee
If you have discharge it may be:
- Yellow and pus like
No discharge doesnt mean no chlamydia its important to remember that most cases of chlamydia are symptom-free, particularly in men. If youve had unprotected sex, i.e. you didnt use a condom, theres every possibility you could have caught chlamydia. You should get tested even if you have no symptoms, so you can be sure. If chlamydia is left untreated it can cause serious health complications, including some that could affect your fertility.
What Are The Side Effects Of Chlamydia Treatment
While doxycycline is an effective treatment for chlamydia, some people may have side effects when taking this chlamydia treatment.
Some common doxycycline side effects may include:
- stomach ulcers
- joint or muscle pain
If you have any side effects when taking doxycycline, tell your doctor as soon as possible.
The full list of doxycycline side effects and cautions can be found in the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine package.
When taking doxycycline, you should avoid drinking alcohol as it reduces doxycyclines effectiveness. You should also avoid sunlight as increased sensitivity to light has been reported as a side effect of doxycycline.
You should stop taking doxycycline and seek immediate medical attention if you develop any of the following rare but severe side effects, or symptoms of an allergic reaction:
- Ringing in your ear
- Fever, swollen lymph nodes or skin rash
- Symptoms of an allergic reaction such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, chest pain, swollen face, lips, mouth, hand or feet
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How Do You Get Oral Chlamydia
A person can get oral chlamydia by giving vaginal, penile, or anal oral sex to another person already infected with the bacteria.
Chlamydia trachomatis can also be spread from an infected persons throat to the penis. Research has not shown that the infection can spread from an infected persons throat to the vagina or rectum during oral sex.
Chlamydia does not seem to spread through kissing.
Chlamydia Can Harm Your Pregnancy Or Reproductive Health
Can chlamydia harm your unborn baby or your future reproductive health? Many people will say no, but thats not true. The infection can cause complications for both pregnancy and fertility.
Chlamydia can cause many complications for pregnant women and their babies. When the infection is left untreated, it can cause preterm delivery. Babies who are born prematurely can have problems with their lungs, hearts, or brains. The infection can spread to the baby, resulting in pneumonia, eye infections, and other complications. Due to these risks, pregnant women are routinely screened for chlamydia.
Chlamydia can cause many complications for pregnant women and their babies. When the infection is left untreated, it can cause preterm delivery.
Chlamydia can also cause complications for women who want to get pregnant. If untreated chlamydia spreads to other parts of the reproductive system, like the uterus, those tissues can be damaged. This can cause infertility. Damage to the uterine tubes could also result in an ectopic pregnancy. This means a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus, usually inside the uterine tube. These pregnancies arent sustainable and may put the mothers life at risk.
There are many myths that are circulating about this common sexually transmitted infection. If youre concerned about chlamydia, see your doctor to get tested.
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When To See A Healthcare Provider
It’s important to talk to your healthcare provider if you have any signs or symptoms of chlamydia, any other symptoms that concern you, or if you know or think you’ve been exposed to the infection.
According to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, women 25 and under and those who are sexually active should be screened for chlamydia every year, as should older women who have an increased risk of infection.
Screening for other STIs/STDs is important as well, as the risk factors for chlamydia also increase the likelihood of contracting these other infections. If you are treated for chlamydia, be sure to tell your healthcare provider if any symptoms persist.